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Sagittal
The sagittal plane (; also known as the longitudinal plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into right and left sections. It is perpendicular to the transverse and coronal planes. The plane may be in the center of the body and divide it into two equal parts ( mid-sagittal), or away from the midline and divide it into unequal parts (para-sagittal). The term ''sagittal'' was coined by Gerard of Cremona. Variations in terminology Examples of sagittal planes include: * The terms '' median plane'' or ''mid-sagittal plane'' are sometimes used to describe the sagittal plane running through the midline. This plane cuts the body into halves (assuming bilateral symmetry), passing through midline structures such as the navel and spine. It is one of the planes which, combined with the Umbilical plane, defines the four quadrants of the human abdomen. * The term ''parasagittal'' is used to describe any plane parallel or adjacent to a given sagittal plane. Specific named para ...
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Sagittal Suture
The sagittal suture, also known as the interparietal suture and the ''sutura interparietalis'', is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull. The term is derived from the Latin word ''sagitta'', meaning arrow. Structure The sagittal suture is formed from the fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull. It has a varied and irregular shape which arises during development. The pattern is different between the inside and the outside. Two anatomical landmarks are found on the sagittal suture: the bregma, and the vertex of the skull. The bregma is formed by the intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures. The vertex is the highest point on the skull and is often near the midpoint of the sagittal suture. Development At birth, the bones of the skull do not meet. The gap that remains, which is approximately 5 mm wide, allows for the brain to continue to grow normally after birth. The inner parts ...
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Sagittal Plane
The sagittal plane (; also known as the longitudinal plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into right and left sections. It is perpendicular to the transverse and coronal planes. The plane may be in the center of the body and divide it into two equal parts ( mid-sagittal), or away from the midline and divide it into unequal parts (para-sagittal). The term ''sagittal'' was coined by Gerard of Cremona. Variations in terminology Examples of sagittal planes include: * The terms '' median plane'' or ''mid-sagittal plane'' are sometimes used to describe the sagittal plane running through the midline. This plane cuts the body into halves (assuming bilateral symmetry), passing through midline structures such as the navel and spine. It is one of the planes which, combined with the Umbilical plane, defines the four quadrants of the human abdomen. * The term ''parasagittal'' is used to describe any plane parallel or adjacent to a given sagittal plane. Specific named para ...
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Adduction
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the body parts involved. Anatomists and others use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing unique movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. ''Flexion'' and ''extension'' are examples of ''angular'' motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. ''Rotational'' motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as ''internal'' or ''external''. Other terms, such as ''elevation'' and ''depression'', describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomic ...
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Extension (kinesiology)
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the body parts involved. Anatomists and others use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing unique movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. ''Flexion'' and ''extension'' are examples of ''angular'' motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. ''Rotational'' motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as ''internal'' or ''external''. Other terms, such as ''elevation'' and ''depression'', describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomic ...
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Coronal Plane
The coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral sections. It is perpendicular to the sagittal and transverse planes. Details The coronal plane is an example of a longitudinal plane. For a human, the mid-coronal plane would transect a standing body into two halves (front and back, or anterior and posterior) in an imaginary line that cuts through both shoulders. The description of the coronal plane applies to most animals as well as humans even though humans walk upright and the various planes are usually shown in the vertical orientation. The sternal plane (''planum sternale'') is a coronal plane which transects the front of the sternum. Etymology The term is derived from Latin ''corona'' ('garland, crown'), from Ancient Greek κορώνη (''korōnē'', 'garland, wreath'). The coronal plane is so-called because it lies in the direction of Coronal suture. Additional images File:Coronal plane CT scan of ...
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Flexion
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the body parts involved. Anatomists and others use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing unique movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. ''Flexion'' and ''extension'' are examples of ''angular'' motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. ''Rotational'' motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as ''internal'' or ''external''. Other terms, such as ''elevation'' and ''depression'', describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatomic ...
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Coronal Plane
The coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral sections. It is perpendicular to the sagittal and transverse planes. Details The coronal plane is an example of a longitudinal plane. For a human, the mid-coronal plane would transect a standing body into two halves (front and back, or anterior and posterior) in an imaginary line that cuts through both shoulders. The description of the coronal plane applies to most animals as well as humans even though humans walk upright and the various planes are usually shown in the vertical orientation. The sternal plane (''planum sternale'') is a coronal plane which transects the front of the sternum. Etymology The term is derived from Latin ''corona'' ('garland, crown'), from Ancient Greek κορώνη (''korōnē'', 'garland, wreath'). The coronal plane is so-called because it lies in the direction of Coronal suture. Additional images File:Coronal plane CT scan of ...
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Abduction (kinesiology)
Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms. Motion includes movement of organs, joints, limbs, and specific sections of the body. The terminology used describes this motion according to its direction relative to the anatomical position of the body parts involved. Anatomists and others use a unified set of terms to describe most of the movements, although other, more specialized terms are necessary for describing unique movements such as those of the hands, feet, and eyes. In general, motion is classified according to the anatomical plane it occurs in. ''Flexion'' and ''extension'' are examples of ''angular'' motions, in which two axes of a joint are brought closer together or moved further apart. ''Rotational'' motion may occur at other joints, for example the shoulder, and are described as ''internal'' or ''external''. Other terms, such as ''elevation'' and ''depression'', describe movement above or below the horizontal plane. Many anatom ...
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Lambdoidal Suture
The lambdoid suture (or lambdoidal suture) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint on the posterior aspect of the skull that connects the parietal bones with the occipital bone. It is continuous with the occipitomastoid suture. Structure The lambdoid suture is between the paired parietal bones and the occipital bone of the skull. It runs from the asterion on each side. Nerve supply The lambdoid suture may be supplied by a branch of the supraorbital nerve, a branch of the frontal branch of the trigeminal nerve. Clinical significance At birth, the bones of the skull do not meet. If certain bones of the skull grow too fast, then craniosynostosis (premature closure of the sutures) may occur. This can result in skull deformities. If the lambdoid suture closes too soon on one side, the skull will appear twisted and asymmetrical, a condition called " plagiocephaly". Plagiocephaly refers to the shape and not the condition. The condition is craniosynostosis. The lambdoid ...
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Transverse Plane
The transverse plane (also known as the horizontal plane, axial plane and transaxial plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into superior and inferior sections. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes. List of clinically relevant anatomical planes * Transverse '' thoracic plane'' * '' Xiphosternal plane'' (or xiphosternal junction) * '' Transpyloric plane'' * '' Subcostal plane'' * ''Umbilical plane'' (or transumbilical plane) * ''Supracristal plane'' * '' Intertubercular plane'' (or transtubercular plane) * ''Interspinous plane'' Clinically relevant anatomical planes with associated structures * The transverse '' thoracic plane'' ** Plane through T4 & T5 vertebral junction and sternal angle of Louis. ** Marks the: *** Attachment of costal cartilage of rib 2 at the sternal angle; *** Aortic arch (beginning and end); *** Upper margin of SVC; *** Thoracic duct crossing; *** Tracheal bifurcation; *** Pulmonary trunk bifurcation; * The '' xiphost ...
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Median Plane
The median plane also called a mid-sagittal plane is used to describe the sagittal plane as it bisects the body vertically through the midline marked by the navel, dividing the body exactly in left and right side. The term parasagittal plane is used to refer to any plane parallel to the sagittal and median plane. It is one of the lines used to define the right upper quadrant of the human abdomen. The midsternal line can be interpreted as a segment of the median plane. File:Sagittal brain MRI.jpg, Median plane magnetic resonance imaging of the head. File:Median plane CT scan of a pregnancy of 37 weeks of gestational age.jpg, Median plane CT scan of a pregnant woman. The fetus (exposed in the coronal plane The coronal plane (also known as the frontal plane) is an anatomical plane that divides the body into dorsal and ventral sections. It is perpendicular to the sagittal and transverse planes. Details The coronal plane is an example of a longitud ...) is 37 weeks of gest ...
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Mid-sagittal Plane
The median plane also called a mid-sagittal plane is used to describe the sagittal plane as it bisects the body vertically through the midline marked by the navel, dividing the body exactly in left and right side. The term parasagittal plane is used to refer to any plane parallel to the sagittal and median plane. It is one of the lines used to define the right upper quadrant of the human abdomen. The midsternal line can be interpreted as a segment of the median plane. File:Sagittal brain MRI.jpg, Median plane magnetic resonance imaging of the head. File:Median plane CT scan of a pregnancy of 37 weeks of gestational age.jpg, Median plane CT scan of a pregnant woman. The fetus (exposed in the coronal plane) is 37 weeks of gestational age In obstetrics, gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the beginning of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available. ...
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