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Quadraphonic Sound
Quadraphonic (or quadrophonic and sometimes quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four audio channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of a listening space. The system allows for the reproduction of sound signals that are (wholly or in part) independent of one another. Four channel quadraphonic surround sound can be used to recreate the highly realistic effect of a three-dimensional live concert hall experience in the home. It can also be used to enhance the listener experience beyond the directional limitations of ordinary two channel stereo sound. Quadraphonic audio was the earliest consumer product in surround sound. Since it was introduced to the public in the early 1970s many thousands of quadraphonic recordings have been made. Quadraphonic sound was a commercial failure when first introduced due to a variety of technical issues and format incompatibilities. Four channel audio formats can be more expensive to ...
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4 0 Channels (quadrophonic)(quadrophonie) Label
4 (four) is a number, numeral and digit. It is the natural number following 3 and preceding 5. It is the smallest semiprime and composite number, and is considered unlucky in many East Asian cultures. In mathematics Four is the smallest composite number, its proper divisors being and . Four is the sum and product of two with itself: 2 + 2 = 4 = 2 x 2, the only number b such that a + a = b = a x a, which also makes four the smallest squared prime number p^. In Knuth's up-arrow notation, , and so forth, for any number of up arrows. By consequence, four is the only square one more than a prime number, specifically three. The sum of the first four prime numbers two + three + five + seven is the only sum of four consecutive prime numbers that yields an odd prime number, seventeen, which is the fourth super-prime. Four lies between the first proper pair of twin primes, three and five, which are the first two Fermat primes, like seventeen, which is the third. On the other ...
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Deutsche Grammophon
Deutsche Grammophon (; DGG) is a German classical music record label that was the precursor of the corporation PolyGram. Headquartered in Berlin Friedrichshain, it is now part of Universal Music Group (UMG) since its merger with the UMG family of labels in 1999. It is the oldest surviving established record company. History Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft was founded in 1898 by German-born United States citizen Emile Berliner as the German branch of his Berliner Gramophone Company. Berliner sent his nephew Joseph Sanders from America to set up operations. Based in the city of Hanover (the founder's birthplace), the company was the German affiliate of the U.S. Victor Talking Machine Company and the British Gramophone Company, and, from 1900, a fully owned subsidiary of the latter, but that ended after the outbreak of World War I in 1914 when ownership reverted to Germany. Though no longer connected to the British Gramophone Company, Deutsche Grammophon continued to use the "His ...
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Precedence Effect
The precedence effect or law of the first wavefront is a binaural psychoacoustical effect. When a sound is followed by another sound separated by a sufficiently short time delay (below the listener's echo threshold), listeners perceive a single auditory event; its perceived spatial location is dominated by the location of the first-arriving sound (the first wave front). The lagging sound also affects the perceived location. However, its effect is suppressed by the first-arriving sound. The Haas effect was described in 1949 by Helmut Haas in his Ph.D. thesis. It is often equated with the underlying precedence effect. History Joseph Henry published "On The Limit of Perceptibility of a Direct and Reflected Sound" in 1851. The "law of the first wavefront" was described and named in 1948 by Lothar Cremer. The "precedence effect" was described and named in 1949 by Wallach et al. They showed that when two identical sounds are presented in close succession they will be heard as a ...
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Jim Fosgate
James M. Fosgate (born December 5, 1937 in Indianapolis, Indiana) was an American inventor, engineer and businessman. The self-taught son of a television and radio repairman, Fosgate invented the first car amplifier in 1973 and founded Fosgate Electronics, now called Rockford Fosgate. Since his departure from Rockford Fosgate in 1981, Fosgate has remained active in the audio world, running Fosgate Laboratories and leading the team that created Dolby Pro Logic II. Fosgate was also the developer of one of the finest quadraphonic Quadraphonic (or quadrophonic and sometimes quadrasonic) sound – equivalent to what is now called 4.0 surround sound – uses four audio channels in which speakers are positioned at the four corners of a listening space. The system allows for th ... decoders, the TATE II 101A (see Stereo Quadraphonic for details), in collaboration with Peter Scheiber and Martin Willcocks, which was superseded by his 3601 decoder. Audio career Collaborating with four c ...
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Dynaquad
Dynaquad, or DY, was a matrix decoder 4-channel quadraphonic sound system developed by Dynaco in 1969. The system originally had four speakers that were arranged in a diamond shape (centre-front, centre-left, centre-rear, centre-right). Initially (first available in 1969 with th ''Dynaco SCA-80Q'' amplifier ), it was introduced as a derived (2:2:4) four channel "decoding" system based on the Hafler circuit, where the back channels played ambient sounds recovered from standard stereo sounds. As such it wasn't used initially used as an encoding method (a similar approach was used on the Electrovoice Stereo-4 system). Commercial usage A simpler form of Dynaquad was adopted, allowing an easy adaptation of existing home setups. The two forward speakers remain in their normal positions, with the user only needing to add two similarly positioned back speakers, forming a square (front-left, front-right, back-left, back-right). Four channel record pioneers Vanguard Records started to ...
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Stereo-4
Stereo-4, also known as EV (from Electro-Voice) or EV-4, was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system developed in 1970 by Leonard Feldman and Jon Fixler. The system was heavily promoted by RadioShack stores in the United States, and some record companies released LP albums encoded in this format. It was the first commercial quadraphonic sound system for LP records. Development The original EV system was compatible with the Dynaquad DY system, and is related to Sansui's QS Regular Matrix system. The EV and QS records are very close to each other—it would take an expert to tell them apart by ear. EV decoders were sometimes used to produce pseudo 4-channel effects from 2-channel stereo recordings. In 1973 Electro-Voice signed an agreement with Columbia/CBS Records to build a new ''universal'' decoder that could decode both SQ and EV records with good results. It could even decode QS records—again, with good results. EV later suggested the same coefficients for an encoder ...
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Compatible Discrete 4
Compatible Discrete 4, also known as Quadradisc or CD-4 (not to be confused with compact disc) was as a discrete four-channel quadraphonic system for phonograph records. The system was created by JVC and RCA in 1971 and introduced in May 1972. Hundreds of recordings using this technology were released on LP during the 1970s. Other major record companies who adopted this format include A&M, Arista, Atlantic, Capricorn, Elektra, Fantasy, Nonesuch, Reprise and Warner Bros. This was the only discrete quadraphonic phonograph record system to gain major industry acceptance. A competing system, UD-4, was later introduced by Denon (Nippon Columbia). In discrete quadraphonic systems, all four channels remain fully independent of each other throughout the entire recording and reproduction chain. There is no intermingling of channels as is done in matrix decoder 4-channel systems such as Stereo Quadraphonic (SQ) and QS Regular Matrix. Though CD-4 and other quadraphonic technologie ...
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QS Regular Matrix
Quadraphonic Sound (originally called Quadphonic Synthesizer, and later referred to as RM or Regular Matrix) was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system for phonograph records. The system was based on technology created by Peter Scheiber, but further developed by engineer Ryosuke Ito of Sansui in the early 1970s. The technology was freely licensed and was adopted by many record labels including ABC, Advent, BluesWay, Candide, Command, Decca, Impulse, Longines, MCA, Passport, Pye, Turnabout and Vox. Hundreds of recordings using this format were released on vinyl LP records during the 1970s. RM (''Regular Matrix'') was often used a synonym for QS, but was actually a standard set by the Japanese governing body, which also embraced the QM (''Quadraphonic Matrix'', consisting of Stereo-4 and Dynaquad) and QX (''QuadXtra'', based on D.H. Cooper "Dual-Triphonic") matrix systems. The QS matrix has been found to offer the advantages of excellent diagonal separation and stere ...
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Stereo Quadraphonic
SQ Quadraphonic ("Stereo Quadraphonic") was a matrix 4-channel quadraphonic sound system for vinyl LP records. It was introduced by CBS Records (known in the United States and Canada as Columbia Records) in 1971. Many recordings using this technology were released on LP during the 1970s. Record companies who adopted this format include: Angel, CTI, Columbia (internationally called CBS Records), EMI, Epic, Eurodisc, Harvest, HMV, Seraphim, Supraphon and Vanguard. With matrix formats, the four sound channels (forward left, forward right, back left, back right) are converted (encoded) down to two channels (left, right). These are then passed through a two-channel transmission medium (usually an LP record) before being decoded back to four channels and presented to four speakers. The SQ encoding is based on the work by Peter Scheiber and further developed by Benjamin Bauer. His basic formula used 90 degree phase shift circuitry to enable enhanced 4-2-4 matrix systems to be ...
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Peter Scheiber
Peter Scheiber is a classically trained musician and audio engineer. He is considered to be the originator of multichannel ''matrix'' audio formats, a mathematical formula used to convert four audio channels into two and back again. Scheiber is also the inventor of the 360-degree spatial decoder. Like Lou Dorren, Scheiber was an early pioneer of multi-channel sound. In matrix quadraphonic systems four channels are converted (encoded) down to two channels. These two matrixed channels are recorded onto tape or vinyl record. Reproduction occurs via a two-channel stereo transmission medium - in most cases a vinyl record - these are decoded back to four channels and reproduced via four loudspeakers. Musician Scheiber an Oberlin College music graduate obtained a full scholarship to study with the first-chair players of the Boston Symphony at Tanglewood. He was 22 years of age when he got to study with Chicago Symphony's first bassoonist. He also played first-chair in the Chicago C ...
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8-track Tape
The 8-track tape (formally Stereo 8; commonly called eight-track cartridge, eight-track tape, and eight-track) is a magnetic tape sound recording technology that was popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s, when the compact cassette, which pre-dated the 8-track system, surpassed it in popularity for pre-recorded music. The format was most popular in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Japan. One advantage of the 8-track tape cartridge was that it could play continuously, and did not have to be "flipped over" to play the entire tape. It is now considered to be obsolete, although there are collectors that refurbish these tapes and players as well as some bands that issue these tapes as a novelty(Cheap Trick's "The Latest" in 2009 and Dolly Parton's "A Holly Dolly Christmas" in 2020 with a track that's only available on the 8 track) The Stereo 8 Cartridge was created in 1964 by a consorti ...
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Phonograph Record
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English), or simply a record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac, with earlier records having a fine abrasive filler mixed in. Starting in the 1940s polyvinyl chloride became common, hence the name vinyl. The phonograph record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had effectively superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records cont ...
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