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Public Offer
A public offering is the offering of securities of a company or a similar corporation to the public. Generally, the securities are to be listed on a stock exchange. In most jurisdictions, a public offering requires the issuing company to publish a prospectus detailing the terms and rights attached to the offered security, as well as information on the company itself and its finances. Many other regulatory requirements surround any public offering and they vary according to jurisdiction. The services of an underwriter are often used to conduct a public offering. Stock offering Initial public offering (IPO) is one type of public offering. Not all public offerings are IPOs. An IPO occurs only when a company offers its shares (not other securities) for the first time for public ownership and trading, an act making it a public company. However, public offerings are also made by already-listed companies. The company issues additional securities to the public, adding to those curren ...
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Securities
A security is a tradable financial asset. The term commonly refers to any form of financial instrument, but its legal definition varies by jurisdiction. In some countries and languages people commonly use the term "security" to refer to any form of financial instrument, even though the underlying legal and regulatory regime may not have such a broad definition. In some jurisdictions the term specifically excludes financial instruments other than equities and Fixed income instruments. In some jurisdictions it includes some instruments that are close to equities and fixed income, e.g., equity warrants. Securities may be represented by a certificate or, more typically, they may be "non-certificated", that is in electronic ( dematerialized) or "book entry only" form. Certificates may be ''bearer'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights under the security merely by holding the security, or ''registered'', meaning they entitle the holder to rights only if they appear on a secur ...
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Capital Note
{{Unreferenced, date=June 2019, bot=noref (GreenC bot) Capital notes are several types of securities. "Capital note" has a number of meanings, as it can be either an equity security, a debt security or a form of security used in structured finance. In all cases, the use of the term "capital" is to denote that the security is relatively junior in the issuing corporation's order of priorities in claims for its assets. Convertibles Capital notes are a form of convertible security exercisable into shares. They are equity vehicles. Capital notes are similar to warrants, except that they often do not have an expiration date or an exercise price (hence, the entire consideration the company expects to receive, for its future issue of shares, is paid when the capital note is issued). Capital notes may be issued in connection with a debt-for-equity swap restructuring: instead of promptly issuing the debt-replacing shares, the company issues convertible securities, in order to postpone ...
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Financial Markets
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives at low transaction costs. Some of the securities include stocks and bonds, raw materials and precious metals, which are known in the financial markets as commodities. The term "market" is sometimes used for what are more strictly ''exchanges'', organizations that facilitate the trade in financial securities, e.g., a stock exchange or commodity exchange. This may be a physical location (such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), London Stock Exchange (LSE), JSE Limited (JSE), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) or an electronic system such as NASDAQ. Much trading of stocks takes place on an exchange; still, corporate actions (merger, spinoff) are outside an exchange, while any two companies or people, for whatever reason, may agree to sell the stock from the one to the other without using an exchange. Trading of currencies and bonds is largely on a bilateral basis, although some ...
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Corporate Finance
Corporate finance is the area of finance that deals with the sources of funding, the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources. The primary goal of corporate finance is to maximize or increase shareholder value. Correspondingly, corporate finance comprises two main sub-disciplines. Capital budgeting is concerned with the setting of criteria about which value-adding projects should receive investment funding, and whether to finance that investment with equity or debt capital. Working capital management is the management of the company's monetary funds that deal with the short-term operating balance of current assets and current liabilities; the focus here is on managing cash, inventories, and short-term borrowing and lending (such as the terms on credit extended to customers). The terms corporate finance and corporate financier ar ...
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Public Offering Without Listing
A public offering without listing, often called a POWL deal or a POWL, is a form of public equity offering by non-Japanese firms in the Japanese market, without the previously required simultaneous listing on a local exchange (e.g. TSE). History Prior to 1989, non-Japanese firms that wanted to sell equity into the Japanese market via public offering were required to list on a local Japanese stock exchange. Changes in regulations introduced in 1989 allowed this form of a public offering by foreign companies published, audited financial statements and with stock that is (or will be) listed on a foreign stock exchange which satisfies the requirements of the FSA. Notable POWL issuance Equity offerings via POWL have been a common part of Asia regional public offerings since the early 1990s, with Japanese investors often taking more than 20% of the offering through this format. ICBC and Bank of China (Hong Kong) used this format to allow their domestic public offerings to spread ...
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Form S-3
Form S-3 is the most simplified securities registration form used by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. It may only be used by companies that have been required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for a minimum of twelve months and have also timely filed all required reports (including annual forms 10-K, quarterly forms 10-Q Form 10-Q, (also known as a 10-Q or 10Q) is a quarterly report mandated by the United States federal Securities and Exchange Commission, to be filed by publicly traded corporations. Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange A ... and certain current forms 8-K) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the twelve calendar months and any portion of a month immediately before the filing of the registration statement. Also, the offering and the issuer must meet other eligibility tests prescribed by the form. External links Latest S-3 filingsSEC homepage SEC filings {{US-law-stub ...
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Form S-1
Form S-1 is an SEC filing used by companies planning on going public to register their securities with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as the "registration statement by the Securities Act of 1933". The S-1 contains the basic business and financial information on an issuer with respect to a specific securities offering. Investors may use the prospectus to consider the merits of an offering and make educated investment decisions. A prospectus is one of the main documents used by an investor to research a company prior to an initial public offering (IPO). Other less detailed registration forms, such as Form S-3 may be used for certain registrations. Every business day, S-1 forms are filed with the SEC's EDGAR filing system, the required filing format of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. However many of these are of the related Form S-1/A, which is used for filing amendments to a previously filed Form S-1. The S-1 form has an OMB approval number of 32 ...
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Secondary Market Offering
A secondary market offering, according to the U.S. Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), is a registered offering of a large block of a security that has been previously issued to the public. The blocks being offered may have been held by large investors or institutions, and proceeds of the sale go to those holders, not the issuing company. It is also called a secondary distribution. A secondary offering is not dilutive to existing shareholders since no new shares are created. The proceeds from the sale of the securities do not benefit the issuing company in any way. The offered shares are privately held by shareholders of the issuing company, who may be directors or other insiders (such as venture capitalists) who may be looking to diversify their holdings. Usually, however, the increase in available shares allows more institutions to take non-trivial positions in the issuing company which may benefit the trading liquidity of the issuing company's shares. A secondary ...
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Secondary Market
The secondary market, also called the aftermarket and follow on public offering, is the financial market in which previously issued financial instruments such as stock, bonds, options, and futures are bought and sold. The initial sale of the security by the issuer to a purchaser, who pays proceeds to the issuer, is the primary market. All sales after the initial sale of the security are sales in the secondary market. Whereas the term primary market refers to the market for new issues of securities, and " market is primary if the proceeds of sales go to the issuer of the securities sold," the secondary market in contrast is the market created by the later trading of such securities. With primary issuances of securities or financial instruments (the primary market), often an underwriter purchases these securities directly from issuers, such as corporations issuing shares in an IPO or private placement. Then the underwriter re-sells the securities to other buyers, in what i ...
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Outstanding Share Capital
Shares outstanding are all the shares of a corporation that have been authorized, issued and purchased by investors and are held by them. They are distinguished from treasury shares, which are shares held by the corporation itself, thus representing no exercisable rights. Shares outstanding and treasury shares together amount to the number of issued shares. Shares outstanding can be calculated as either basic or fully diluted. The basic count is the current number of shares. Dividend distributions and voting in the general meeting of shareholders are calculated according to this number. The fully diluted shares outstanding count, on the other hand, includes diluting securities, such as warrants, capital notes or convertibles. If the company has any diluting securities, this indicates the potential future increased number of shares outstanding. Finding the number of shares outstanding The number of outstanding shares may change due to changes in the number of issued shares, as ...
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Primary Market
:''"Primary market" may also refer to a market in art valuation.'' The primary market is the part of the capital market that deals with the issuance and sale of securities to purchasers directly by the issuer, with the issuer being paid the proceeds. A primary market means the market for new issues of securities, as distinguished from the secondary market, where previously issued securities are bought and sold. "A market is primary if the proceeds of sales go to the issuer of the securities sold." Buyers buy securities that were not previously traded. Concept In a primary market, companies, governments, or public sector institutions can raise funds through bond issues, and corporations can raise capital through the sale of new stock through an initial public offering (IPO). This is often done through an investment bank or underwriter or finance syndicate of securities dealers. The process of selling new shares to buyers is called underwriting. Dealers earn a commission ...
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Private Company
A privately held company (or simply a private company) is a company whose shares and related rights or obligations are not offered for public subscription or publicly negotiated in the respective listed markets, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned, traded, exchanged privately, or over-the-counter. In the case of a closed corporation, there are a relatively small number of shareholders or company members. Related terms are closely-held corporation, unquoted company, and unlisted company. Though less visible than their publicly traded counterparts, private companies have major importance in the world's economy. In 2008, the 441 largest private companies in the United States accounted for ($1.8 trillion) in revenues and employed 6.2 million people, according to ''Forbes''. In 2005, using a substantially smaller pool size (22.7%) for comparison, the 339 companies on '' Forbes'' survey of closely held U.S. businesses sold a trillion dollars' worth of goods and service ...
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