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Plane Wave
In physics, a plane wave is a special case of wave or field: a physical quantity whose value, at any moment, is constant through any plane that is perpendicular to a fixed direction in space. For any position \vec x in space and any time t, the value of such a field can be written as :F(\vec x,t) = G(\vec x \cdot \vec n, t), where \vec n is a unit-length vector, and G(d,t) is a function that gives the field's value as dependent on only two real parameters: the time t, and the scalar-valued displacement d = \vec x \cdot \vec n of the point \vec x along the direction \vec n. The displacement is constant over each plane perpendicular to \vec n. The values of the field F may be scalars, vectors, or any other physical or mathematical quantity. They can be complex numbers, as in a complex exponential plane wave. When the values of F are vectors, the wave is said to be a longitudinal wave if the vectors are always collinear with the vector \vec n, and a transverse wave if they ...
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Physics
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves. "Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. ( ...
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Amplitude
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change in a single period (such as time or spatial period). The amplitude of a non-periodic signal is its magnitude compared with a reference value. There are various definitions of amplitude (see below), which are all functions of the magnitude of the differences between the variable's extreme values. In older texts, the phase of a periodic function is sometimes called the amplitude. Definitions Peak amplitude & semi-amplitude For symmetric periodic waves, like sine waves, square waves or triangle waves ''peak amplitude'' and ''semi amplitude'' are the same. Peak amplitude In audio system measurements, telecommunications and others where the measurand is a signal that swings above and below a reference value but is not sinusoidal, peak amplitude is often used. If the reference is zero, this is the maximum absolute value of the signal; if the reference is a mean value (DC component), the peak amplitude is the maximum ...
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Classical Electrodynamics (book)
''Classical Electrodynamics'' is a textbook about that subject written by theoretical particle and nuclear physicist John David Jackson. The book originated as lecture notes that Jackson prepared for teaching graduate-level electromagnetism first at McGill University and then at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Intended for graduate students, and often known as ''Jackson'' for short, it has been a standard reference on its subject since its first publication in 1962. Some biographical details about Jackson in Mehra's review are inconsistent with Jackson's autobiography. See the article Jackson (1999). The book is notorious for the difficulty of its problems, and its tendency to treat non-obvious conclusions as self-evident. A 2006 survey by the American Physical Society (APS) revealed that 76 out of the 80 U.S. physics departments surveyed require all first-year graduate students to complete a course using the third edition of this book. Overview Advanced topic ...
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Academic Press
Academic Press (AP) is an academic book publisher founded in 1941. It was acquired by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1969. Reed Elsevier bought Harcourt in 2000, and Academic Press is now an imprint of Elsevier. Academic Press publishes reference books, serials and online products in the subject areas of: * Communications engineering * Economics * Environmental science * Finance * Food science and nutrition * Geophysics * Life sciences * Mathematics and statistics * Neuroscience * Physical sciences * Psychology Well-known products include the '' Methods in Enzymology'' series and encyclopedias such as ''The International Encyclopedia of Public Health'' and the ''Encyclopedia of Neuroscience''. See also * Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft The (AVG, AVg, Aka, AV; English: Academic publishing company) in Leipzig was an important German academic publisher, which was founded in 1906. The original Jewish owners of the publishing house and key employees were expropriated during ...
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Weyl Expansion
In physics, the Weyl expansion, also known as the Weyl identity or angular spectrum expansion, expresses an outgoing spherical wave as a linear combination of plane waves. In a Cartesian coordinate system, it can be denoted as :\frac=\frac \int_^ \int_^ dk_x dk_y e^ \frac, where k_x, k_y and k_z are the wavenumbers in their respective coordinate axes: :k_0=\sqrt. The expansion is named after Hermann Weyl, who published it in 1919. The Weyl identity is largely used to characterize the reflection and transmission of spherical waves at planar interfaces; it is often used to derive the Green's functions for Helmholtz equation in layered media. The expansion also covers evanescent wave components. It is often preferred to the Sommerfeld identity when the field representation is needed to be in Cartesian coordinates. The resulting Weyl integral is commonly encountered in microwave integrated circuit analysis and electromagnetic radiation over a stratified medium; as in the case fo ...
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Wave Equation
The (two-way) wave equation is a second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves or standing wave fields — as they occur in classical physics — such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or electromagnetic waves (including light waves). It arises in fields like acoustics, electromagnetism, and fluid dynamics. Single mechanical or electromagnetic waves propagating in a pre-defined direction can also be described with the first-order one-way wave equation which is much easier to solve and also valid for inhomogenious media. Introduction The (two-way) wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation describing waves, including traveling and standing waves; the latter can be considered as linear superpositions of waves traveling in opposite directions. This article mostly focuses on the scalar wave equation describing waves in scalars by scalar functions of a time variable (a variable representing ...
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Rectilinear Propagation
Rectilinear propagation describes the tendency of electromagnetic waves (light) to travel in a straight line. Light does not deviate when travelling through a homogeneous medium, which has the same refractive index throughout; otherwise, light suffers '' refraction''. Even though a wave front may be bent, (e.g. the waves created by a rock hitting a pond) the individual rays are moving in straight lines. Rectilinear propagation was discovered by Pierre de Fermat Proof Take three cardboard A, B and C, of the same size. Make a pin hole at the centre of each of three cardboard. Place the cardboard in the upright position, such that the holes in A, B and C are in the same straight line, in the order. Place a luminous source like a candle near the cardboard A and look through the hole in the cardboard C. We can see the candle flame. This implies that light rays travel along a straight line ABC, and hence, candle flame is visible. When one of the cardboard is slightly displaced, ca ...
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Plane Wave Expansion
In physics, the plane-wave expansion expresses a plane wave as a linear combination of spherical waves: e^ = \sum_^\infty (2 \ell + 1) i^\ell j_\ell(k r) P_\ell(\hat \cdot \hat), where * is the imaginary unit, * is a wave vector of length , * is a position vector of length , * are spherical Bessel functions, * are Legendre polynomials, and * the hat denotes the unit vector. In the special case where is aligned with the ''z'' axis, e^ = \sum_^\infty (2 \ell + 1) i^\ell j_\ell(k r) P_\ell(\cos \theta), where is the spherical polar angle of . Expansion in spherical harmonics With the spherical-harmonic addition theorem the equation can be rewritten as e^ = 4 \pi \sum_^\infty \sum_^\ell i^\ell j_\ell(k r) Y_\ell^m(\hat) Y_\ell^(\hat), where * are the spherical harmonics and * the superscript denotes complex conjugation. Note that the complex conjugation can be interchanged between the two spherical harmonics due to symmetry. Applications The plane wave expans ...
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Divergence
In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the divergence represents the volume density of the outward flux of a vector field from an infinitesimal volume around a given point. As an example, consider air as it is heated or cooled. The velocity of the air at each point defines a vector field. While air is heated in a region, it expands in all directions, and thus the velocity field points outward from that region. The divergence of the velocity field in that region would thus have a positive value. While the air is cooled and thus contracting, the divergence of the velocity has a negative value. Physical interpretation of divergence In physical terms, the divergence of a vector field is the extent to which the vector field flux behaves like a source at a given point. It is a local measure of its "outgoingness" – the extent t ...
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Linear Operator
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation, vector space homomorphism, or in some contexts linear function) is a mapping V \to W between two vector spaces that preserves the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication. The same names and the same definition are also used for the more general case of modules over a ring; see Module homomorphism. If a linear map is a bijection then it is called a . In the case where V = W, a linear map is called a (linear) ''endomorphism''. Sometimes the term refers to this case, but the term "linear operator" can have different meanings for different conventions: for example, it can be used to emphasize that V and W are real vector spaces (not necessarily with V = W), or it can be used to emphasize that V is a function space, which is a common convention in functional analysis. Sometimes the term ''linear function'' has the same meaning as ''linear ma ...
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Local Operator
Local may refer to: Geography and transportation * Local (train), a train serving local traffic demand * Local, Missouri, a community in the United States * Local government, a form of public administration, usually the lowest tier of administration * Local news, coverage of events in a local context which would not normally be of interest to those of other localities * Local union, a locally based trade union organization which forms part of a larger union Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Local'' (comics), a limited series comic book by Brian Wood and Ryan Kelly * ''Local'' (novel), a 2001 novel by Jaideep Varma * Local TV LLC, an American television broadcasting company * Locast, a non-profit streaming service offering local, over-the-air television * ''The Local'' (film), a 2008 action-drama film * '' The Local'', English-language news websites in several European countries Computing * .local, a network address component * Local variable, a variable that is given lo ...
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Plane Standing Wave
Plane(s) most often refers to: * Aero- or airplane, a powered, fixed-wing aircraft * Plane (geometry), a flat, 2-dimensional surface Plane or planes may also refer to: Biology * Plane (tree) or ''Platanus'', wetland native plant * ''Planes'' (genus), marsh crabs in Grapsidae * '' Bindahara phocides'', the plane butterfly of Asia Maritime transport * Planing (boat), where weight is predominantly supported by hydrodynamic lift * ''Plane'' (wherry), a Norfolk canal boat, in use 1931–1949 Music *"Planes", a 1976 song by Colin Blunstone *"Planes (Experimental Aircraft)", a 1989 song by Jefferson Airplane from ''Jefferson Airplane'' *" Planez", originally "Planes", a 2015 song by Jeremih *"The Plane", a 1987 song on the ''Empire of the Sun'' soundtrack *"The Plane", a 1997 song by Kinito Méndez Other entertainment * Plane (''Dungeons & Dragons''), any fictional realm of the D&D roleplaying game's multiverse * ''Planes'' (film), a 2013 animation **'' Planes: Fire & Rescue ...
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