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National Historical Geographic Information System
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a historical GIS project to create and freely disseminate a database incorporating all available aggregate United States Census, census information for the United States between United States Census, 1790, 1790 and United States Census, 2010, 2010. The project has created one of the largest collections in the world of statistical census information, much of which was not previously available to the research community because of legacy data formats and differences between metadata formats. The statistical and geographic data are disseminated free of charge through a sophisticated online data access system. In addition, NHGIS has created historical and contemporary cartographic boundary shapefiles compatible with every census, and over 50 million lines of metadata describing the collection. Historical U.S. state and county boundaries are available 1790–present, with smaller geographies available as the United Stat ...
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The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a historical GIS project to create and freely disseminate a database incorporating all available aggregate United States Census, census information for the United States between United States Census, 1790, 1790 and United States Census, 2010, 2010. The project has created one of the largest collections in the world of statistical census information, much of which was not previously available to the research community because of legacy data formats and differences between metadata formats. The statistical and geographic data are disseminated free of charge through a sophisticated online data access system. In addition, NHGIS has created historical and contemporary cartographic boundary shapefiles compatible with every census, and over 50 million lines of metadata describing the collection. Historical U.S. state and county boundaries are available 1790–present, with smaller geographies available as the United Stat ...
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University Of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (the U of M or Minnesota) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ... land-grant A land grant is a gift of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) ... research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ... in the Twin Cities 300px, A view of the town of Tornio (Finland), which forms a twin city with Haparanda">Finland.ht ...
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Demographics Of The United States
The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ... had an official resident population of 331,449,281 on April 1, 2020, according to the U.S. Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of th .... This figure includes the 50 states The United States, United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 U.S. state, states, a Capital districts and territories#United States, federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major t ... and the District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , ...
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Historical Geographic Information Systems
History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of these events. Historians seek knowledge of the past using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, art and material artifacts, and ecological markers. History is also an Discipline (academia), academic discipline which uses narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze past events, and investigate their patterns of cause and effect. Historians often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the historiography, nature of history as an end in itself, as ...
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Google Groups
Google Groups is a service from Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ... that provides discussion groups A focus group is a group interview involving a small number of demographically similar people or participants who have other common traits/experiences. Their reactions to specific researcher/evaluator-posed questions are studied. Focus groups are u ... for people sharing common interests. The Groups service also provides a gateway to Usenet Usenet () is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) dial-up Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access Internet access is the ability of ... newsgroups via a shared user interface In the industrial design In ...
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Google Scholar
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a nu ... that indexes the full text or metadata Metadata is " that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata — the descriptive info ... of scholarly literature Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written output that is not formally ... across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta Beta (, ; uppercase , lowercase , or curs ...
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National Institutes Of Health
The National Institutes of Health (NIH ) is the primary agency of the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Ameri ... responsible for biomedical Biomedicine (also referred to as Western medicine, mainstream medicine or conventional medicine)
and
public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease", prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and inf ...
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National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent agency of the United States government Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group)The Independents were a group of Modern Art, modernist painting, painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, New Hope, Pennsylvan ... that supports fundamental research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may ... and education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators; however, lea ... in all the non-medical fields of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', ...
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Minnesota Population Center
The Minnesota Population Center (MPC) is a university-wide interdisciplinary research center at the University of Minnesota. MPC was established in 2000, absorbing two earlier population research organizations. The primary goals of the center are to foster large-scale cross-disciplinary research collaborations and to provide shared infrastructure for demographic research. The center now has 100 faculty affiliates from 10 University of Minnesota Colleges, over 50 graduate student affiliates and 120 administrative and research staff. Overview The primary activity of MPC is demographic research; work at the center is divided into eight major themes: * Large-scale demographic data infrastructure * Work, family, and time-use * Historical demography * Education, labor, and the life-course * Healthcare access and health disparities * Census and survey methodology * Unions and sexuality * Population and environment MPC is the producer and distributor of the world's largest demographic dat ...
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Historical GIS
A historical geographic information system (also written as historical GIS or HGIS) is a geographic information system that may display, store and analyze data of past geographies and track changes in time. It can be regarded as a tool for historical geography. Techniques used in HGIS * Digitization and georeferencing of historical maps: Old maps may contain valuable information about the past. By adding coordinates to such maps, they may be added as a feature layer to modern GIS data: This facilitates comparison of different map layers showing the geography at different times. The maps may be further enhanced by techniques such as rubbersheeting, which spatially warps the data to fit with more accurate modern maps. * Reconstruction of past boundaries: By creating polygons of former administrative sub-divisions and borders, aggregate statistics can be compared through time. * Georeferencing of historical microdata (such as census or parish records): This enables the use of spatial ...
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Geographic Information System
A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the that interacts with s, applications, and the data ... containing geographic data Geographic data and information is defined in the ISO/TC 211 series of standards as data and information having an implicit or explicit association with a location relative to Earth (a geographic location or geographic position). It is also calle ... (that is, descriptions of phenomena for which location is relevant), combined with software tools A programming tool or software development tool is a that s use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs, that can be combined to accomplish a task, mu ... for managing, analyzing Analysis is the proces ...
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United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ... people A people is any plurality of persons considered as a whole. Used in politics and law it is a term to refer to the collective or community of an ethnic group, a nation, to the public or common people, common mass of people of a polity. As suc ... and economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( .... The Census Bureau is p ...
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