Molecular Orbitals
In chemistry, a molecular orbital is a mathematical function describing the location and wavelike behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region. The terms ''atomic orbital'' and ''molecular orbital'' were introduced by Robert S. Mulliken in 1932 to mean ''oneelectron orbital wave functions''. At an elementary level, they are used to describe the ''region'' of space in which a function has a significant amplitude. In an isolated atom, the orbital electrons' location is determined by functions called atomic orbitals. When multiple atoms combine chemically into a molecule, the electrons' locations are determined by the molecule as a whole, so the atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals. The electrons from the constituent atoms occupy the molecular orbitals. Mathematically, molecular orbitals are an approximate solution to the Schrödi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orbitals Acetylene
Orbital may refer to: Sciences Chemistry and physics * Atomic orbital * Molecular orbital * Hybrid orbital Astronomy and space flight * Orbit ** Earth orbit Medicine and physiology * Orbit (anatomy), also known as the ''orbital bone'' * Orbitofrontal cortex, a part of the brain used for decision making Business * Orbital Corporation, an Australian engine technology company * Orbital Sciences Corporation, a U.S. satellite launch and defense systems corporation * Orbital ATK, American aerospace manufacturer formed from the merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and parts of Alliant Techsystems Transportation * Ring road (or ''orbital road'' in some regions) * Orbital (metro), a rapid transit line usually encircling a city centre * Orbital engine Other uses * Orbital (The Culture), artificial worlds from Iain M. Banks's series of science fiction novels, the Culture * Orbital (band), an English electronic dance music duo ** ''Orbital'' (1991 album) ** ''Orbital'' (1993 album ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hartree–Fock Method
In computational physics and chemistry, the Hartree–Fock (HF) method is a method of approximation for the determination of the wave function and the energy of a quantum manybody system in a stationary state. The Hartree–Fock method often assumes that the exact ''N''body wave function of the system can be approximated by a single Slater determinant (in the case where the particles are fermions) or by a single permanent (in the case of bosons) of ''N'' spinorbitals. By invoking the variational method, one can derive a set of ''N''coupled equations for the ''N'' spin orbitals. A solution of these equations yields the Hartree–Fock wave function and energy of the system. Especially in the older literature, the Hartree–Fock method is also called the selfconsistent field method (SCF). In deriving what is now called the Hartree equation as an approximate solution of the Schrödinger equation, Hartree required the final field as computed from the charge distribution to b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Irreducible Representation
In mathematics, specifically in the representation theory of groups and algebras, an irreducible representation (\rho, V) or irrep of an algebraic structure A is a nonzero representation that has no proper nontrivial subrepresentation (\rho, _W,W), with W \subset V closed under the action of \. Every finitedimensional unitary representation on a Hilbert space V is the direct sum of irreducible representations. Irreducible representations are always indecomposable (i.e. cannot be decomposed further into a direct sum of representations), but converse may not hold, e.g. the twodimensional representation of the real numbers acting by upper triangular unipotent matrices is indecomposable but reducible. History Group representation theory was generalized by Richard Brauer from the 1940s to give modular representation theory, in which the matrix operators act on a vector space over a field K of arbitrary characteristic, rather than a vector space over the field of real numb ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pi Bond
In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds, in each of which two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap with two lobes of an orbital on another atom, and in which this overlap occurs laterally. Each of these atomic orbitals has an electron density of zero at a shared nodal plane that passes through the two bonded nuclei. This plane also is a nodal plane for the molecular orbital of the pi bond. Pi bonds can form in double and triple bonds but do not form in single bonds in most cases. The Greek letter π in their name refers to p orbitals, since the orbital symmetry of the pi bond is the same as that of the p orbital when seen down the bond axis. One common form of this sort of bonding involves p orbitals themselves, though d orbitals also engage in pi bonding. This latter mode forms part of the basis for metalmetal multiple bonding. Pi bonds are usually weaker than sigma bonds. The CC double bond, composed of one sigma and one pi bond, has a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sigma Bond
In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond. They are formed by headon overlapping between atomic orbitals. Sigma bonding is most simply defined for diatomic molecules using the language and tools of symmetry groups. In this formal approach, a σbond is symmetrical with respect to rotation about the bond axis. By this definition, common forms of sigma bonds are s+s, pz+pz, s+pz and dz2+dz2 (where z is defined as the axis of the bond or the internuclear axis). Quantum theory also indicates that molecular orbitals (MO) of identical symmetry actually mix or ''hybridize''. As a practical consequence of this mixing of diatomic molecules, the wavefunctions s+s and pz+pz molecular orbitals become blended. The extent of this mixing (or hybridization or blending) depends on the relative energies of the MOs of like symmetry. For homodiatomics ( homonuclear diatomic molecules), bonding σ orbitals have no nodal planes at which the wavefunction ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Configuration Interaction
Configuration interaction (CI) is a postHartree–Fock linear variational method for solving the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation within the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for a quantum chemical multielectron system. Mathematically, ''configuration'' simply describes the linear combination of Slater determinants used for the wave function. In terms of a specification of orbital occupation (for instance, (1s)2(2s)2(2p)1...), ''interaction'' means the mixing (interaction) of different electronic configurations (states). Due to the long CPU time and large memory required for CI calculations, the method is limited to relatively small systems. In contrast to the Hartree–Fock method, in order to account for electron correlation, CI uses a variational wave function that is a linear combination of configuration state functions (CSFs) built from spin orbitals (denoted by the superscript ''SO''), : \Psi = \sum_ c_ \Phi_^ = c_0\Phi_0^ + c_1\Phi_1^ + where Ψ i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pauli Principle
In quantum mechanics, the Pauli exclusion principle states that two or more identical particles with halfinteger spins (i.e. fermions) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously. This principle was formulated by Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925 for electrons, and later extended to all fermions with his spin–statistics theorem of 1940. In the case of electrons in atoms, it can be stated as follows: it is impossible for two electrons of a polyelectron atom to have the same values of the four quantum numbers: ''n'', the principal quantum number; ', the azimuthal quantum number; ''m'', the magnetic quantum number; and ''ms'', the spin quantum number. For example, if two electrons reside in the same orbital, then their ''n'', ', and ''m'' values are the same; therefore their ''ms'' must be different, and thus the electrons must have opposite halfinteger spin projections of 1/2 and −1/2. Particles with an integer spin, or boso ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Computational Chemistry
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems. It uses methods of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of molecules, groups of molecules, and solids. It is essential because, apart from relatively recent results concerning the hydrogen molecular ion (dihydrogen cation, see references therein for more details), the quantum manybody problem cannot be solved analytically, much less in closed form. While computational results normally complement the information obtained by chemical experiments, it can in some cases predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena. It is widely used in the design of new drugs and materials. Examples of such properties are structure (i.e., the expected positions of the constituent atoms), absolute and relative (interaction) energies, electronic charge density distributions, dipoles and higher multipole moments, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Molecular Orbital Theory
In chemistry, molecular orbital theory (MO theory or MOT) is a method for describing the electronic structure of molecules using quantum mechanics. It was proposed early in the 20th century. In molecular orbital theory, electrons in a molecule are not assigned to individual chemical bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the atomic nuclei in the whole molecule. Quantum mechanics describes the spatial and energetic properties of electrons as molecular orbitals that surround two or more atoms in a molecule and contain valence electrons between atoms. Molecular orbital theory revolutionized the study of chemical bonding by approximating the states of bonded electrons—the molecular orbitals—as linear combinations of atomic orbitals (LCAO). These approximations are made by applying the density functional theory (DFT) or Hartree–Fock (HF) models to the Schrödinger equation. Molecular orbital theory and valence bond theory are the foundation ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Linear Combination Of Atomic Orbitals Molecular Orbital Method
A linear combination of atomic orbitals or LCAO is a quantum superposition of atomic orbitals and a technique for calculating molecular orbitals in quantum chemistry. In quantum mechanics, electron configurations of atoms are described as wavefunctions. In a mathematical sense, these wave functions are the basis set of functions, the basis functions, which describe the electrons of a given atom. In chemical reactions, orbital wavefunctions are modified, i.e. the electron cloud shape is changed, according to the type of atoms participating in the chemical bond. It was introduced in 1929 by Sir John LennardJones with the description of bonding in the diatomic molecules of the first main row of the periodic table, but had been used earlier by Linus Pauling for H2+. Mathematical description An initial assumption is that the number of molecular orbitals is equal to the number of atomic orbitals included in the linear expansion. In a sense, ''n'' atomic orbitals combine to for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electron Configuration
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. For example, the electron configuration of the neon atom is , meaning that the 1s, 2s and 2p subshells are occupied by 2, 2 and 6 electrons respectively. Electronic configurations describe each electron as moving independently in an orbital, in an average field created by all other orbitals. Mathematically, configurations are described by Slater determinants or configuration state functions. According to the laws of quantum mechanics, for systems with only one electron, a level of energy is associated with each electron configuration and in certain conditions, electrons are able to move from one configuration to another by the emission or absorption of a quantum of energy, in the form of a photon. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the str ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Atomic Nuclei
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment. After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, models for a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons were quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg. An atom is composed of a positively charged nucleus, with a cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounding it, bound together by electrostatic force. Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the electron cloud. Protons and neutrons are bound together to form a nucleus by the nuclear force. The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of () for hydrogen (the diameter of a single proton) to about for uranium. These dimensions are much smaller than the diameter of the atom itself (nucleus + electron cloud), by a factor of about 26,634 (uranium atomic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 