Message Digest
A cryptographic hash function (CHF) is a hash algorithm (a map of an arbitrary binary string to a binary string with fixed size of n bits) that has special properties desirable for cryptography: * the probability of a particular nbit output result ( hash value) for a random input string ("message") is 2^ (like for any good hash), so the hash value can be used as a representative of the message; * finding an input string that matches a given hash value (a ''preimage'') is unfeasible, unless the value is selected from a known precalculated dictionary ("rainbow table"). The ''resistance'' to such search is quantified as security strength, a cryptographic hash with n bits of hash value is expected to have a ''preimage resistance'' strength of n bits. A ''second preimage'' resistance strength, with the same expectations, refers to a similar problem of finding a second message that matches the given hash value when one message is already known; * finding any pair of different mes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cryptographic Hash Function
A cryptographic hash function (CHF) is a hash algorithm (a map of an arbitrary binary string to a binary string with fixed size of n bits) that has special properties desirable for cryptography: * the probability of a particular nbit output result (hash value) for a random input string ("message") is 2^ (like for any good hash), so the hash value can be used as a representative of the message; * finding an input string that matches a given hash value (a ''preimage'') is unfeasible, unless the value is selected from a known precalculated dictionary (" rainbow table"). The ''resistance'' to such search is quantified as security strength, a cryptographic hash with n bits of hash value is expected to have a ''preimage resistance'' strength of n bits. A ''second preimage'' resistance strength, with the same expectations, refers to a similar problem of finding a second message that matches the given hash value when one message is already known; * finding any pair of different messa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cryptanalysis
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek ''kryptós'', "hidden", and ''analýein'', "to analyze") refers to the process of analyzing information systems in order to understand hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach cryptographic security systems and gain access to the contents of encrypted messages, even if the cryptographic key is unknown. In addition to mathematical analysis of cryptographic algorithms, cryptanalysis includes the study of sidechannel attacks that do not target weaknesses in the cryptographic algorithms themselves, but instead exploit weaknesses in their implementation. Even though the goal has been the same, the methods and techniques of cryptanalysis have changed drastically through the history of cryptography, adapting to increasing cryptographic complexity, ranging from the penandpaper methods of the past, through machines like the British Bombes and Colossus computers at Bletchley Park in World War II, to the mathematically advanced ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

CRC32
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an errordetecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to digital data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short ''check value'' attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption. CRCs can be used for error correction (see bitfilters). CRCs are so called because the ''check'' (data verification) value is a ''redundancy'' (it expands the message without adding information) and the algorithm is based on ''cyclic'' codes. CRCs are popular because they are simple to implement in binary hardware, easy to analyze mathematically, and particularly good at detecting common errors caused by noise in transmission channels. Because the check value has a fixed length, the function that generates it is occasionally us ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

SWIFFT
In cryptography, SWIFFT is a collection of provably secure hash functions. It is based on the concept of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). SWIFFT is not the first hash function based on FFT, but it sets itself apart by providing a mathematical proof of its security. It also uses the LLL basis reduction algorithm. It can be shown that finding collisions in SWIFFT is at least as difficult as finding short vectors in cyclic/ ideal lattices in the ''worst case''. By giving a security reduction to the worstcase scenario of a difficult mathematical problem, SWIFFT gives a much stronger security guarantee than most other cryptographic hash functions. Unlike many other provably secure hash functions, the algorithm is quite fast, yielding a throughput of 40Mbit/s on a 3.2 GHz Intel Pentium 4. Although SWIFFT satisfies many desirable cryptographic and statistical properties, it was not designed to be an "allpurpose" cryptographic hash function. For example, it is not a pseudorando ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Random Oracle
In cryptography, a random oracle is an oracle (a theoretical black box) that responds to every ''unique query'' with a (truly) random response chosen uniformly from its output domain. If a query is repeated, it responds the same way every time that query is submitted. Stated differently, a random oracle is a mathematical function chosen uniformly at random, that is, a function mapping each possible query to a (fixed) random response from its output domain. Random oracles as a mathematical abstraction were first used in rigorous cryptographic proofs in the 1993 publication by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway (1993). They are typically used when the proof cannot be carried out using weaker assumptions on the cryptographic hash function. A system that is proven secure when every hash function is replaced by a random oracle is described as being secure in the random oracle model, as opposed to secure in the standard model of cryptography. Applications Random oracles are typi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Random Function
In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic () or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. Examples include the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise, or the movement of a gas molecule. Stochastic processes have applications in many disciplines such as biology, chemistry, ecology, neuroscience, physics, image processing, signal processing, control theory, information theory, computer science, cryptography and telecommunications. Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial markets have motivated the extensive use of stochastic processes in finance. Applications and the study of phenomena have in turn inspired the proposal of new stochastic processes. Examples of such stochastic processes include the Wiener process or Brownian motion proc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

HMAC
In cryptography, an HMAC (sometimes expanded as either keyedhash message authentication code or hashbased message authentication code) is a specific type of message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function and a secret cryptographic key. As with any MAC, it may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and authenticity of a message. HMAC can provide authentication using a shared secret instead of using digital signatures with asymmetric cryptography. It trades off the need for a complex public key infrastructure by delegating the key exchange to the communicating parties, who are responsible for establishing and using a trusted channel to agree on the key prior to communication. Details Any cryptographic hash function, such as SHA2 or SHA3, may be used in the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is termed HMACX, where X is the hash function used (e.g. HMACSHA256 or HMACSHA3512). The cryptographic strength of t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concatenation
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings endtoend. For example, the concatenation of "snow" and "ball" is "snowball". In certain formalisations of concatenation theory, also called string theory, string concatenation is a primitive notion. Syntax In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary infix operator. The + (plus) operator is often overloaded to denote concatenation for string arguments: "Hello, " + "World" has the value "Hello, World". In other languages there is a separate operator, particularly to specify implicit type conversion to string, as opposed to more complicated behavior for generic plus. Examples include . in Edinburgh IMP, Perl, and PHP, .. in Lua, and & in Ada, AppleScript, and Visual Basic. Other syntax exists, like , , in PL/I and Oracle Database SQL. In a few languages, notably C, C++, and Python, there is string literal concatenation, mea ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Length Extension Attack
In cryptography and computer security, a length extension attack is a type of attack where an attacker can use Hash(''message1'') and the length of ''message1'' to calculate Hash(''message1'' ‖ ''message2'') for an attackercontrolled ''message2'', without needing to know the content of ''message1''. This is problematic when the hash is used as a message authentication code with construction Hash(''secret'' ‖ ''message''), and ''message'' and the length of ''secret'' is known, because an attacker can include extra information at the end of the message and produce a valid hash without knowing the secret. Algorithms like MD5, SHA1 and most of SHA2 that are based on the Merkle–Damgård construction are susceptible to this kind of attack. Truncated versions of SHA2, including SHA384 and SHA512/256 are not susceptible, nor is the SHA3 algorithm. HMAC also uses a different construction and so is not vulnerable to length extension attacks. Explanation The vulnerable ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Adversary (cryptography)
In cryptography, an adversary (rarely opponent, enemy) is a malicious entity whose aim is to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal (primarily privacy, integrity, and availability of data). An adversary's efforts might take the form of attempting to discover secret data, corrupting some of the data in the system, spoof Spoof, spoofs, spoofer, or spoofing may refer to: * Forgery of goods or documents * Semen, in Australian slang * Spoof (game), a guessing game * Spoofing (finance), a disruptive algorithmictrading tactic designed to manipulate markets __NOTOC__ ...ing the identity of a message sender or receiver, or forcing system downtime. Actual adversaries, as opposed to idealized ones, are referred to as ''attackers''. The former term predominates in the cryptographic and the latter in the computer security literature. Eve, Mallory, Oscar and Trudy are all adversarial characters widely used in both types of texts. This notion of an adversary helps ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Birthday Attack
A birthday attack is a type of cryptographic attack that exploits the mathematics behind the birthday problem in probability theory. This attack can be used to abuse communication between two or more parties. The attack depends on the higher likelihood of collisions found between random attack attempts and a fixed degree of permutations (pigeonholes). With a birthday attack, it is possible to find a collision of a hash function in \sqrt = 2^, with 2^n being the classical preimage resistance security. There is a general (though disputed) result that quantum computers can perform birthday attacks, thus breaking collision resistance, in \sqrt = 2^. Although there are some digital signature vulnerabilities associated with the birthday attack, it cannot be used to break an encryption scheme any faster than a bruteforce attack. Understanding the problem As an example, consider the scenario in which a teacher with a class of 30 students (n = 30) asks for everybody's birthday (for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hash Collision
In computer science, a hash collision or hash clash is when two pieces of data in a hash table share the same hash value. The hash value in this case is derived from a hash function which takes a data input and returns a fixed length of bits. Although hash algorithms have been created with the intent of being collision resistant, they can still sometimes map different data to the same hash (by virtue of the pigeonhole principle). Malicious users can take advantage of this to mimic, access, or alter data. Due to the possible negative applications of hash collisions in data management and computer security (in particular, cryptographic hash functions), collision avoidance has become an important topic in computer security. Background Hash collisions can be unavoidable depending on the number of objects in a set and whether or not the bit string they are mapped to is long enough in length. When there is a set of ''n'' objects, if ''n'' is greater than , ''R'', , which in thi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 