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Luba Kingdom
The Kingdom of Luba or Luba Empire (1585–1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba Depression in what is now southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Origins and foundation Archaeological research shows that the Upemba depression had been occupied continuously since at least the 4th century AD. In the 4th century, the region was occupied by iron-working farmers. Over the centuries, the people of the region learned to use Fishing net, nets, harpoons, make dugout canoes, and clear canals through swamps. They had also learned techniques for drying fish, which were an important source of protein; they began trading the dried fish with the inhabitants of the protein-starved savanna. By the 6th century, fishing people lived on lakeshores, worked iron, and traded palm oil. By the 10th century, the people of Upemba had diversified their economy, combining fishing, farming and metal-working. Metal-workers relied on traders to br ...
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ... in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun) In Mod ..., is head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ... for life or until abdication Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles i ...
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Charcoal
Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ... residue produced by strongly heating wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ... (or other animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ... and plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Ene ...
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Zambia
Zambia (), officially the Republic of Zambia ( Bemba:'' Icalo ca Zambia''; Tonga Tonga (, ), officially named the Kingdom of Tonga ( to, Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "island") ( to, Faka-Polinisia; mi, Porinihia; haw, Polenekia; ...: ''Cisi ca Zambia''; Lozi: ''Naha ya Zambia''; Nyanja Chewa (also known as Nyanja, ) is a Bantu language The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically ...: ''Dziko la Zambia''), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ... at the crossroads of Central Central is an ad ...
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Lunda Kingdom
The Nation of Lunda (c. 1665 – c. 1887) was a confederation of states in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, north-eastern Angola, and north-western Zambia, its central state was in Katanga Province, Katanga. Origin Initially, the core of what would become the Lunda confederation was a commune called a ''N'Gaange'' in the kiLunda (kiyaka-kipunu) language. It was ruled over by a monarch called the Mwane-a- n'Gaange. One of these rulers, Ilunga Tshibinda, came from the nation of Luba Kingdom, Luba where his brother ruled and married a royal woman from a nation to their south. Their son became the first paramount ruler of the Lunda, creating the title of Mwane-a-Yamvu (c. 1665). Apex The Lunda Kingdom controlled some 150,000 km2 by 1680. The state doubled in size to around 300,000 km2 at its height in the nineteenth century.Thornton, page 104 The ''Mwane-a Yamvo'' of Lunda became powerful militarily from their base of 175,000 inhabitants. Along with this milita ...
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Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un .... In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authori .... Government is a means by which organizational policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. While all types of organizations have go ...
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Lake Kisale
Lake Kisale is a lake in the Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (, ), officially the Republic of Zaire (frenc ... (DRC), in Bukama Territory, Haut-Lomami District Haut-Lomami District was a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, sever .... At about in area, it is the second largest of the lakes in the Upemba Depression The Upemba Depression (or Kamalondo Depression) is a large marshy bowl area (Depression (geology), depression) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo comprising some fifty lakes, including 22 of relatively large size including Lake Upemba (530&nbs ... (Kamolondo Depression), an extensive mars ...
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Decapitation
Decapitation or beheading is the total separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is invariably fatal to humans and most other animals, since it deprives the brain of oxygenated blood, while all other organs are deprived of the autonomic nervous system, involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function. The term ''beheading'' refers to the act of deliberately decapitating a person, either as a means of murder or as an capital punishment, execution; it may be performed with an axe, sword, knife, machete or by mechanical means such as a guillotine or chainsaw. An executioner who carries out executions by beheading is sometimes called a headsman. Accidental decapitation can be the result of an explosion, a car or industrial accident, improperly administered execution by hanging or other violent injury. Suicide by decapitation is rare but not unknown. The national laws of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Qatar permit beheading; however, in practice, Saudi Arabia is ...
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Ilunga Mbili
{{Refimprove, date=January 2008 Ilunga Mbidi was a soldier and cultural hero of the Luba and Lunda people The Lunda (''Balunda'', ''Luunda'', ''Ruund'') are a Bantu ethnic group that originated in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also .... Origins The details of his origins are not known. It is likely that he came from another Bantu kingdom to the East of the Lualaba river. Prophecy Kongolo was a tyrant ruling over indigenous people of the Upemba Depression The Upemba Depression (or Kamalondo Depression) is a large marshy bowl area (Depression (geology), depression) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo comprising some fifty lakes, including 22 of relatively large size including Lake Upemba (530&nbs .... Wanting to create a kingdom, he consulted the prophet Mujibu. Mujibu prophesied that he could never rule as he was a commoner; but soon the Bulopwe “sacra ...
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Lake Boya
Lake Boya is a small lake about east of Kabongo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kabongo in Katanga (province), Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The lake is surrounded by high reeds, and has a thriving population of birds. In the pre-colonial perion the region around Lake Boya was a center of inter-regional trade, an important source of wealth for the Kingdom of Luba. The king and conqueror Kongolo Mwamba, Kongolo established his capital near Lake Boya at Mwimbele at the start of the sixteenth century. References Sources

* * Lakes of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nzilo {{DRCongo-geo-stub ...
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Lualaba River
The Lualaba River flows entirely within the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo ( french: République démocratique du Congo (RDC) ), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo, the DRC, the DROC, or the Congo, and formerly Zaire Zaire (, ), officially the Republic of Zaire (frenc .... It is the greatest river source (headstream) of the Congo River The Congo River ( kg, Nzâdi Kôngo, french: Fleuve Congo, pt, Rio Congo), formerly also known as the Zaire River, is the second longest river in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both case ... by volume of water. The Lualaba is long. Its headwaters The headwaters of a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course witho ... are in the country's far ...
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Kalala Ilunga
Kalala Ilunga (b. 16th century) was a Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in so ..., King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ... and one of the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...s of Luba Empire The Kingdom of Luba or Luba Empire (1585–1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upem ...
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Kongolo Mwamba
Kongolo (or Nkongolo) was a leader of Luba people in the region of Katanga Province, Katanga, and the first king of the Luba Empire. He built his capital in Mwibele, near Lake Boya. Kongolo Mwamba was trying to extend his kingdom in conquering the Songye neighbouring chiefdoms. He met a prince of the Kunda people on behalf of Ilunga Mbidi through its sisters who had met at the lake; Mbidi, being a late military strategist, helped Kongolo expand his Kingdom. The popularity and the growing power of Mbidi Ilunga overshadowed that of Kongolo, who was advised by his entourage to organize a conspiracy to eliminate Mbidi. With the help of his wives, Ilunga Mbidi absconded by leaving women and children while returning to Kunda. A son of Ilunga Mbidi and nephew of Kongolo, Kalala Ilunga, took the place of his father as one of the generals among the warring forces. He also became very powerful, which overshadowed Kongolo. Kongolo tried several times to remove his nephew but failed. At the l ...
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