Level Of Measurement
Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables. Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the bestknown classification with four levels, or scales, of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. This framework of distinguishing levels of measurement originated in psychology and is widely criticized by scholars in other disciplines. Other classifications include those by Mosteller and Tukey, and by Chrisman. Stevens's typology Overview Stevens proposed his typology in a 1946 ''Science'' article titled "On the theory of scales of measurement". In that article, Stevens claimed that all measurement in science was conducted using four different types of scales that he called "nominal", "ordinal", "interval", and "ratio", unifying both " qualitative" (which are described by his "nominal" type) and "quantitative" (to a different degree, all the rest of his scales). The conc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dependent And Independent Variables
Dependent and independent variables are variables in mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences. Dependent variables receive this name because, in an experiment, their values are studied under the supposition or demand that they depend, by some law or rule (e.g., by a mathematical function), on the values of other variables. Independent variables, in turn, are not seen as depending on any other variable in the scope of the experiment in question. In this sense, some common independent variables are time, space, density, mass, fluid flow rate, and previous values of some observed value of interest (e.g. human population size) to predict future values (the dependent variable). Of the two, it is always the dependent variable whose variation is being studied, by altering inputs, also known as regressors in a statistical context. In an experiment, any variable that can be attributed a value without attributing a value to any other variable is called an in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Range (statistics)
In statistics, the range of a set of data is the difference between the largest and smallest values, the result of subtracting the sample maximum and minimum. It is expressed in the same units as the data. In descriptive statistics, range is the size of the smallest interval which contains all the data and provides an indication of statistical dispersion. Since it only depends on two of the observations, it is most useful in representing the dispersion of small data sets. For continuous IID random variables For ''n'' independent and identically distributed continuous random variables ''X''1, ''X''2, ..., ''X''''n'' with the cumulative distribution function G(''x'') and a probability density function g(''x''), let T denote the range of them, that is, T= max(''X''1, ''X''2, ..., ''X''''n'') min(''X''1, ''X''2, ..., ''X''''n''). Distribution The range, T, has the cumulative distribution function ::F(t)= n \int_^\infty g(x)(x+t)G(x) \, \textx. Gumbel notes that the "beauty ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Grammar
In linguistics, the grammar of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The term can also refer to the study of such constraints, a field that includes domains such as phonology, morphology (linguistics), morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics. There are currently two different approaches to the study of grammar: traditional grammar and Grammar#Theoretical frameworks, theoretical grammar. Fluency, Fluent speakers of a variety (linguistics), language variety or ''lect'' have effectively internalized these constraints, the vast majority of which – at least in the case of one's First language, native language(s) – are language acquisition, acquired not by conscious study or language teaching, instruction but by hearing other speakers. Much of this internalization occurs during early childhood; learning a language later ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Globally Unique Identifier
A universally unique identifier (UUID) is a 128bit label used for information in computer systems. The term globally unique identifier (GUID) is also used. When generated according to the standard methods, UUIDs are, for practical purposes, unique. Their uniqueness does not depend on a central registration authority or coordination between the parties generating them, unlike most other numbering schemes. While the probability that a UUID will be duplicated is not zero, it is generally considered close enough to zero to be negligible. Thus, anyone can create a UUID and use it to identify something with near certainty that the identifier does not duplicate one that has already been, or will be, created to identify something else. Information labeled with UUIDs by independent parties can therefore be later combined into a single database or transmitted on the same channel, with a negligible probability of duplication. Adoption of UUIDs is widespread, with many computing platforms ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Constructivist Epistemology
Constructivism is a view in the philosophy of science that maintains that scientific knowledge is constructed by the scientific community, which seeks to measure and construct models of the natural world. According to the constructivist, natural science, therefore, consists of mental constructs that aim to explain sensory experience and measurements. According to constructivists, the world is independent of human minds, but knowledge of the world is always a human and social construction. Constructivism opposes the philosophy of objectivism, embracing the belief that a human can come to know the truth about the natural world not mediated by scientific approximations with different degrees of validity and accuracy. According to constructivists, there is no single valid methodology in science but rather a diversity of useful methods. Etymology The term originates from psychology, education, and social constructivism. The expression "constructivist epistemology" was first used b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dichotomy
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets). In other words, this couple of parts must be * jointly exhaustive: everything must belong to one part or the other, and * mutually exclusive: nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts. If there is a concept A, and it is split into parts B and notB, then the parts form a dichotomy: they are mutually exclusive, since no part of B is contained in notB and vice versa, and they are jointly exhaustive, since they cover all of A, and together again give A. Such a partition is also frequently called a bipartition. The two parts thus formed are complements. In logic, the partitions are opposites if there exists a proposition such that it holds over one and not the other. Treating continuous variables or multi categorical variables as binary variables is called dichotomization. The discretization error inherent in dichotomization is temporarily ignored for modeling purposes. Etymology The term '' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Studentized Range
In statistics, the studentized range, denoted ''q'', is the difference between the largest and smallest data in a sample normalized by the sample standard deviation. It is named after William Sealy Gosset (who wrote under the pseudonym "''Student''"), and was introduced by him in 1927. The concept was later discussed by Newman (1939), Keuls (1952), and John Tukey in some unpublished notes. Its statistical distribution is the ''studentized range distribution'', which is used for multiple comparison procedures, such as the single step procedure Tukey's range test, the Newman–Keuls method, and the Duncan's step down procedure, and establishing confidence intervals that are still valid after data snooping has occurred. Description The value of the studentized range, most often represented by the variable ''q'', can be defined based on a random sample ''x''1, ..., ''x''''n'' from the ''N''(0, 1) distribution of numbers, and another random variable ''s'' that is independen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coefficient Of Variation
In probability theory and statistics, the coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution. It is often expressed as a percentage, and is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation \sigma to the mean \mu (or its absolute value, The CV or RSD is widely used in analytical chemistry to express the precision and repeatability of an assay. It is also commonly used in fields such as engineering or physics when doing quality assurance studies and ANOVA gauge R&R, by economists and investors in economic models, and in neuroscience. Definition The coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation \ \sigma to the mean \ \mu , c_ = \frac. It shows the extent of variability in relation to the mean of the population. The coefficient of variation should be computed only for data measured on scales that have a meaningful zer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Harmonic Mean
In mathematics, the harmonic mean is one of several kinds of average, and in particular, one of the Pythagorean means. It is sometimes appropriate for situations when the average rate is desired. The harmonic mean can be expressed as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the given set of observations. As a simple example, the harmonic mean of 1, 4, and 4 is : \left(\frac\right)^ = \frac = \frac = 2\,. Definition The harmonic mean ''H'' of the positive real numbers x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n is defined to be :H = \frac = \frac = \left(\frac\right)^. The third formula in the above equation expresses the harmonic mean as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals. From the following formula: :H = \frac. it is more apparent that the harmonic mean is related to the arithmetic and geometric means. It is the reciprocal dual of the arithmetic mean for positive inputs: :1/H(1/x_1 \ldots 1/x_n) = A(x_1 \ldots x_n) The harmonic mean is a Schurcon ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometric Mean
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average which indicates a central tendency of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum). The geometric mean is defined as the th root of the product of numbers, i.e., for a set of numbers , the geometric mean is defined as :\left(\prod_^n a_i\right)^\frac = \sqrt /math> or, equivalently, as the arithmetic mean in logscale: :\exp For instance, the geometric mean of two numbers, say 2 and 8, is just the square root of their product, that is, \sqrt = 4. As another example, the geometric mean of the three numbers 4, 1, and 1/32 is the cube root of their product (1/8), which is 1/2, that is, \sqrt = 1/2. The geometric mean applies only to positive numbers. The geometric mean is often used for a set of numbers whose values are meant to be multiplied together or are exponential in nature, such as a set of growth figures: values of the human population or inter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ratio
In mathematics, a ratio shows how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8:6, which is equivalent to the ratio 4:3). Similarly, the ratio of lemons to oranges is 6:8 (or 3:4) and the ratio of oranges to the total amount of fruit is 8:14 (or 4:7). The numbers in a ratio may be quantities of any kind, such as counts of people or objects, or such as measurements of lengths, weights, time, etc. In most contexts, both numbers are restricted to be Positive integer, positive. A ratio may be specified either by giving both constituting numbers, written as "''a'' to ''b''" or "''a'':''b''", or by giving just the value of their quotient Equal quotients correspond to equal ratios. Consequently, a ratio may be considered as an ordered pair of numbers, a Fraction (mathematics), fraction with the first number in the numerator and the second in the denom ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Deviation (statistics)
In mathematics and statistics, deviation is a measure of difference between the observed value of a variable and some other value, often that variable's mean. The sign of the deviation reports the direction of that difference (the deviation is positive when the observed value exceeds the reference value). The magnitude of the value indicates the size of the difference. Types A deviation that is a difference between an observed value and the ''true value'' of a quantity of interest (where ''true value'' denotes the Expected Value, such as the population mean) is an error. A deviation that is the difference between the observed value and an ''estimate'' of the true value (e.g. the sample mean; the Expected Value of a sample can be used as an estimate of the Expected Value of the population) is a residual. These concepts are applicable for data at the interval and ratio levels of measurement. Unsigned or absolute deviation In statistics, the absolute deviation of an element of a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 