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Intestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organ (biology), organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Food taken in through the mouth is digestion, digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled at the anus as feces. ''Gastrointestinal'' is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. Nephrozoa, Most animals have a "through-gut" or complete digestive tract. Exceptions are more primitive ones: sponges have small pores (ostium (sponges), ostia) throughout their body for digestion and a larger dorsal pore (osculum) for excretion, comb jellies have both a ventral mouth and dorsal anal pores, while cnidarians and acoels have a single pore for both digestion and excretion. The human gastrointestinal tract consists ...
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Human Mouth
In human anatomy The human body is the structure of a human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ..., the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, di ... that receives food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biology, an organism (from Anci ... and produces saliva Saliva (commonly referred to as spit) is an extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outs ...
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Ostium (sponges)
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (; meaning 'pore bearer'), are a basal animal clade as a sister of the Diploblasts. They are Multicellular organism, multicellular organisms that have bodies full of pores and channels allowing water to circulate through them, consisting of jelly-like mesohyl sandwiched between two thin layers of Cell (biology), cells. Sponges have unspecialized cells that can cellular differentiation, transform into other types and that often migrate between the main cell layers and the mesohyl in the process. Sponges do not have nervous system, nervous, digestive system, digestive or circulatory systems. Instead, most rely on maintaining a constant water flow through their bodies to obtain food and oxygen and to remove wastes. Sponges were first to branch off the evolutionary tree from the last common ancestor of all animals, making them the sister group of all other animals. Etymology The term ''sponge'' derives from the Ancient Greek word ( 's ...
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Foregut
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, di ..., from the mouth In animal anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is ... to the duodenum The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine The small intestine or small bowel is an organ (anatomy), organ in the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract where most of the #Absorption, absorption of nutrients from foo ... at the entrance of the bile duct A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebr ...
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Gallbladder
In vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ...s, the gallbladder, also known as the cholecyst, is a small hollow organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... where bile Bile (from latin ''bilis''), or gall, is a dark-green-to-yellowish-brown fluid produced by the of most s that aids the of s in the . In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile) and stored and concentrated in the . After ... is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine The small intestine or small bowel is an organ (anatomy ...
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Liver
The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, digestive tract, digestion tract, alimentary canal) is the tract from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of th ... only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolite In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical process In a scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Europ ...s, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble f ...
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Pancreas
The pancreas is an Organ (anatomy), organ of the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity, abdomen behind the stomach and functions as a gland. The pancreas is a mixed or heterocrine gland, i.e. it has both an endocrine and a digestive exocrine function. 99% of the pancreas is exocrine and 1% is endocrine. As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. As a part of the digestive system, it functions as an exocrine gland secreting pancreatic juice into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct. This juice contains bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid entering the duodenum from the stomach; and digestive enzymes, which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, fats in food entering the duodenum from the stomach. Inflammation of the pancreas is known as pancreatitis, with common causes including chronic alc ...
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Salivary Gland
The salivary glands in mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...s are exocrine gland Exocrine glands are gland In animals, a gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormone A hormone (from the Greek participle , "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules i ...s that produce saliva Saliva (commonly referred to as spit) is an extracellular fluid In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including t ... through a system of ducts. Humans have three paired major salivary glands (parotid The parotid gland is a major salivary gland The salivary glands in mammals ...
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Tongue
The tongue is a muscular organ (anatomy), organ in the mouth of a typical tetrapod. It manipulates food for mastication and swallowing as part of the digestive system, digestive process, and is the primary organ of taste. The tongue's upper surface (dorsum) is covered by taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The tongue also serves as a natural means of oral hygiene, cleaning the teeth. A major function of the tongue is the enabling of speech in humans and animal communication, vocalization in other animals. The human tongue is divided into two parts, an oral cavity, oral part at the front and a pharynx, pharyngeal part at the back. The left and right sides are also separated along most of its length by a vertical section of connective tissue, fibrous tissue (the lingual septum) that results in a groove, the median sulcus, on the tongue's surface. There are two groups of muscle ...
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Human Digestive System
The human digestive system consists of the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has three stages: the cephalic phase, the Regulation of gastric function#Gastric phase, gastric phase, and the Regulation of gastric function#Intestinal phase, intestinal phase. The first stage, the cephalic phase of digestion, begins with gastric secretions in response to the sight and smell of food. This stage includes the mechanical breakdown of food by chewing, and the chemical breakdown by digestive enzymes, that takes place in the human mouth, mouth. Saliva contains digestive enzymes called Alpha-amylase, amylase, and lingual lipase, secreted by the salivary glands and serous glands on the tongue. The enzymes start t ...
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Small Intestine
The small intestine or small bowel is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ... in the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, d ... where most of the absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a route by which substances enter the body through the skin *Absorption (pharmacolo ... of nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the bas ...
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Human Mouth
In human anatomy The human body is the structure of a human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an ..., the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract, (GI tract, GIT, di ... that receives food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism In biology, an organism (from Anci ... and produces saliva Saliva (commonly referred to as spit) is an extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outs ...
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Acoels
Acoela, or the acoels, is an order of small and simple invertebrates in the subphylum Acoelomorpha of phylum Xenacoelomorpha, a deep branching bilaterian group of animals, which resemble flatworms. Historically they were treated as an order of turbellarian flatworms. The etymology of "acoel" is from the Ancient Greek words (), the ''alpha privative'', expressing negation or absence, and (), meaning "cavity". This refers to the fact that acoels have a structure lacking a fluid-filled body cavity. Description Acoels are very small flattened worms, usually under in length, but some larger species, such as ''Symsagittifera roscoffensis'', may reach up to . They are found worldwide in marine and brackish waters, usually having a benthos, benthic lifestyle, although some species are epibionts. Members of the class Acoela lack a conventional Gut (zoology), gut, so that the mouth opens directly into the mesenchyme, i.e., the layer of tissue that fills the body. Digestion is acco ...
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