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Identifier
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique ''class'' of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical countable object (or class thereof), or physical noncountable substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols ''stand for'' epresentideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a code or ID code. For instance the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry standard defines a code as ''system of valid symbols that substitute for longer values'' in contrast to identifiers without symbolic meaning. Ide ...
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Identifier (computer Science)
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique ''class'' of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical countable object (or class thereof), or physical noncountable substance (or class thereof). The abbreviation ID often refers to identity, identification (the process of identifying), or an identifier (that is, an instance of identification). An identifier may be a word, number, letter, symbol, or any combination of those. The words, numbers, letters, or symbols may follow an encoding system (wherein letters, digits, words, or symbols ''stand for'' epresentideas or longer names) or they may simply be arbitrary. When an identifier follows an encoding system, it is often referred to as a code or ID code. For instance the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata registry standard defines a code as ''system of valid symbols that substitute for longer values'' in contrast to identifiers without symbolic meaning. Ide ...
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Unique Identifier
A unique identifier (UID) is an identifier that is guaranteed to be unique among all identifiers used for those objects and for a specific purpose. The concept was formalized early in the development of computer science and information systems. In general, it was associated with an atomic data type. In relational databases, certain attributes of an entity that serve as unique identifiers are called primary keys. In mathematics, set theory uses the concept of '' element indices'' as unique identifiers. Classification There are some main types of unique identifiers, each corresponding to a different generation strategy: # serial numbers, assigned incrementally or sequentially, by a central authority or accepted reference. # random numbers, selected from a number space much larger than the maximum (or expected) number of objects to be identified. Although not really unique, some identifiers of this type may be appropriate for identifying objects in many practical applicatio ...
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Universally Unique Identifier
A universally unique identifier (UUID) is a 128-bit label used for information in computer systems. The term globally unique identifier (GUID) is also used. When generated according to the standard methods, UUIDs are, for practical purposes, unique. Their uniqueness does not depend on a central registration authority or coordination between the parties generating them, unlike most other numbering schemes. While the probability that a UUID will be duplicated is not zero, it is generally considered close enough to zero to be negligible. Thus, anyone can create a UUID and use it to identify something with near certainty that the identifier does not duplicate one that has already been, or will be, created to identify something else. Information labeled with UUIDs by independent parties can therefore be later combined into a single database or transmitted on the same channel, with a negligible probability of duplication. Adoption of UUIDs is widespread, with many computing platforms ...
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Representation Term
A representation term is a word, or a combination of words, that semantically represent the data type (value domain) of a data element. A representation term is commonly referred to as a ''class word'' by those familiar with data dictionaries. ISO/IEC 11179-5:2005 defines ''representation term'' as a ''designation of an instance of a representation class'' As used in ISO/IEC 11179, the representation term is that part of a data element name that provides a semantic pointer to the underlying data type. A '' Representation class'' is a class of representations. This ''representation class'' provides a way to classify or group data elements. A ''Representation Term'' may be thought of as an attribute of a data element in a metadata registry that classifies the data element according to the type of data stored in the data element. Representation terms are typically "approved" by the organization or standards body using them. For example, the UN publishes its approved list as ...
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Token (parser)
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of ''lexical tokens'' ( strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning). A program that performs lexical analysis may be termed a ''lexer'', ''tokenizer'', or ''scanner'', although ''scanner'' is also a term for the first stage of a lexer. A lexer is generally combined with a parser, which together analyze the syntax of programming languages, web pages, and so forth. Applications A lexer forms the first phase of a compiler frontend in modern processing. Analysis generally occurs in one pass. In older languages such as ALGOL, the initial stage was instead line reconstruction, which performed unstropping and removed whitespace and comments (and had scannerless parsers, with no separate lexer). These steps are now done as part of the lexer. Lexers and parsers are most often used for compilers, ...
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Identification Scheme
In metadata, an identification scheme is used to identify unique records in a set. If a data element is used to identify a record within a data set, the data element uses the Identifier representation term. An identification scheme should be contrasted with a classification scheme. Classification schemes are used to classify individual records into categories. Many records in a data set may be in a single category. See also * Classification scheme * Metadata * Representation term A representation term is a word, or a combination of words, that semantically represent the data type (value domain) of a data element. A representation term is commonly referred to as a ''class word'' by those familiar with data dictionaries. ISO ... Metadata {{Compsci-stub ...
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Entity Class
An entity is something that exists as itself, as a subject or as an object, actually or potentially, concretely or abstractly, physically or not. It need not be of material existence. In particular, abstractions and legal fictions are usually regarded as entities. In general, there is also no presumption that an entity is animate, or present. The term is broad in scope and may refer to animals; natural features such as mountains; inanimate objects such as tables; numbers or sets as symbols written on a paper; human contrivances such as laws, corporations and academic disciplines; or supernatural beings such as gods and spirits. The adjectival form is ''entitative''. Etymology The word ''entity'' is derived from the Latin ''entitas'', which in turn derives from the Latin ''ens'' meaning "being" or "existing" (compare English ''essence''). ''Entity'' may hence literally be taken to mean "thing which exists". In philosophy Ontology is the study of concepts of existence, and ...
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Part Number
A part number (often abbreviated PN, P/N, part no., or part #) is an identifier of a particular part design or material used in a particular industry. Its purpose is to simplify reference to that item. A part number unambiguously identifies a part design within a single corporation, and sometimes across several corporations. For example, when specifying a screw, it is easier to refer to "HSC0424PP" than saying "Hardware, screw, machine, 4-40, 3/4" long, pan head, Phillips". In this example, "HSC0424PP" is the part number, and it may be prefixed in database fields as "PN HSC0424PP" or "P/N HSC0424PP". The part design versus instantiations of it As a part number is an identifier of a part ''design'' (independent of its instantiations), a serial number is a unique identifier of ''a particular instantiation'' of that part design. In other words, a part number identifies any particular (physical) part as being made to that one unique design; a serial number, when used, identif ...
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Metadata
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata – the descriptive information about a resource. It is used for discovery and identification. It includes elements such as title, abstract, author, and keywords. * Structural metadata – metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. It describes the types, versions, relationships, and other characteristics of digital materials. * Administrative metadata – the information to help manage a resource, like resource type, permissions, and when and how it was created. * Reference metadata – the information about the contents and quality of statistical data. * Statistical metadata – also called process data, may describe processes that collect, process, or produce st ...
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Information Processing System
An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a private content (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems: * input * processor * storage * output An object may be considered an information processor if it receives information from another object and in some manner changes the information before transmitting it. This broadly defined term can be used to describe every change which occurs in the universe. As an example, a falling rock could be considered an information processor due to the following observable facts: First, information in the form of gravitational force from the earth serves as input to the system we call a rock. At a particular instant the rock is a specific distanc ...
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Lexical (semiotics)
Content words, in linguistics, are words that possess semantic content and contribute to the meaning of the sentence in which they occur. In a traditional approach, nouns were said to name objects and other entities, lexical verbs to indicate actions, adjectives to refer to attributes of entities, and adverbs to attributes of actions. They contrast with function words, which have very little substantive meaning and primarily denote grammatical relationships between content words, such as prepositions (in, out, under etc.), pronouns (I, you, he, who etc.) and conjunctions (and, but, till, as etc.). All words can be classified as either content or function words, but it is not always easy to make the distinction. With only around 150 function words, 99.9% of words in the English language are content words. Although small in number, function words are used at a disproportionately higher rate than content and make up about 50% of any English text because of the conventional patter ...
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