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Idealised Population
In population genetics Population genetics is a subfield of that deals with genetic differences within and between s, and is a part of . Studies in this branch of examine such phenomena as , , and . Population genetics was a vital ingredient in the of the . Its pri ... an idealised population is one that can be described using a number of simplifying assumptions. Models of idealised populations are either used to make a general point, or they are fit to data on real populations for which the assumptions may not hold true. For example, coalescent theory Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor. In the simplest case, coalescent theory assumes no recombination, no natural selection, and no gene flow or population structu ... is used to fit data to models of idealised populations. The most common idealized population in population genetics is described in the Wright-Fisher model after Sewall Wright ...
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Population Genetics
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics Genetics is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, ... that deals with genetic differences within and between population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ...s, and is a part of evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interacti .... Studies in this branch of biology Biology is the natural science that stud ...
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Joe Roman
Joe Roman is a conservation biologist, academic, and author of the books ''Whale'' and ''Listed: Dispatches from America's Endangered Species Act''. His conservation biology, conservation research includes studies of the historical population size of whales, the role of cetaceans in the nitrogen cycle, the relationship between biodiversity and disease, and the genetics of invasions. He is the founding editor of "Eat the Invaders", a website dedicated to controlling invasive species by eating them. Roman is a research associate professor in the Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources and a Fellow at the Gund Institute for Ecological Economics at the University of Vermont. He earned an Bachelor of Arts, AB with Honors in Visual and Environmental Studies from Harvard University in 1985 and an Master of Arts, MA in wildlife ecology and conservation from the University of Florida. Roman was awarded his PhD from Harvard's Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biolo ...
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Computer Program
In imperative programming In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algori ..., a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language A programming language is a formal language In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of string (computer science), words whose symbol (formal), letters are taken from an alphabet (computer science) ... that a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ... can execute or interpret. In declarative programming In computer science, declarative programming is a programming ...
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Simulation
A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simulation represents the evolution of the model over time. Often, computers are used to execute the simulation A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of Conceptual model, models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, wh .... Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning Performance tuning is the improvement of system Computer performance, performance. Typically in computer systems, the motivation for such activity is called a performance problem, which can be either real or anticipated. Most systems will respond to ... or optimizing, safety engineering Safety ...
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Stepping Stone Model
Stepping may refer to: * Walking, one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals Computing * Stepping level, an aspect of microprocessor version designation * Stepping (debugging), a method of debugging Dance * Chicago stepping, a type of dance originating in Chicago * Step dance, generic term for dance styles where the footwork is the most important part of the dance * Stepping (African-American), a percussive dance in which the participant's entire body is used as an instrument * ''Steppin''', album by the Pointer Sisters See also

* Step (other) * Stepping stone (other) * Mast Stepping {{Disambiguation ...
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Archaic Human Admixture With Modern Humans
There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek wikt:παλαιός, palaios - old, lithos - stone), ... and early Upper Paleolithic The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) also called the is the third and last subdivision of the or Old . Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and years ago (the beginning of the ), according to some theories coinciding with the .... The interbreeding happened in several independent events that included Neanderthal Neanderthals (, also Neandertals, ''Homo neanderthalensis'' or ''Homo sapiens neanderthalensis'') are an extinct species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, phys ...s and Denisovan The ...
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Science (journal)
''Science'', also widely referred to as ''Science magazine'', is the peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may re ... academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most ... of the American Association for the Advancement of Science The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution ... (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals. It was first publi ...
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Sex Ratio
The sex ratio is the ratio In mathematics, a ratio indicates how many times one number contains another. For example, if there are eight oranges and six lemons in a bowl of fruit, then the ratio of oranges to lemons is eight to six (that is, 8∶6, which is equivalent to ... of male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...s to female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex Sex is either of two divisions, typically male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of ...s in a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the siz ...
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Effective Population
The effective population size (''N''''e'') is the number of individuals that an idealised population would need to have in order for some specified quantity of interest to be the same in the idealised population as in the real population. Idealised populations are based on unrealistic but convenient simplifications such as random mating, simultaneous birth of each new generation, constant population size, and equal numbers of children per parent. In some simple scenarios, the effective population size is the number of breeding individuals in the population. However, for most quantities of interest and most real populations, the population size, census population size ''N'' of a real population is usually larger than the effective population size ''N''''e''. The same population may have multiple effective population sizes, for different properties of interest, including for different genetic loci. The effective population size is most commonly measured with respect to the Coalescent ...
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Genetic Diversity
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species, it ranges widely from the number of species to differences within species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ... and can be attributed to the span of survival for a species. It is distinguished from genetic variabilityGenetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences. It is defined as "the formation of individuals differing in genotype Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a Punnett square ..., which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individ ...
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Stephen R
Stephen or Steven is a common English first name First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, .... It is particularly significant to Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ..., as it belonged to Saint Stephen Stephen ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ''Stéphanos'', meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor, renown, fame", often given as a title rather than as a name; he, סטפנוס הקדוש, ''Stephanos HaQadosh''; c. 5 – c. 34 AD), ... ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ), an early disciple and deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an o ...
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Binomial Square Principle
Binomial may refer to: In mathematics *Binomial (polynomial), a polynomial with two terms *Binomial coefficient, numbers appearing in the expansions of powers of binomials *Binomial QMF, a perfect-reconstruction orthogonal wavelet decomposition *Binomial theorem, a theorem about powers of binomials *Binomial type, a property of sequences of polynomials In probability and statistics *Binomial distribution, a type of probability distribution *Binomial process *Binomial test, a test of significance In computing science *Binomial heap, a data structure In linguistics *Binomial pair, a sequence of two or more words or phrases in the same grammatical category, having some semantic relationship and joined by some syntactic device In biology * Binomial nomenclature, a Latin two-term name for a species, such as ''Sequoia sempervirens'' In finance *Binomial options pricing model, a numerical method for the valuation of options In politics *Binomial voting system, a voting system used i ...
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