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History Of Languages
The evolution of languages or history of language includes the evolution, divergence and development of languages throughout time, as reconstructed based on glottochronology, comparative linguistics, written records and other historical linguistics techniques. The origin of language is a hotly contested topic, with some languages tentatively traced back to the Paleolithic. However, archaeological and written records extend the history of language into ancient times and the Neolithic. The distribution of languages has changed substantially over time. Major regional languages like Elamite, Sogdian language, Sogdian, Koine Greek, or Nahuatl in ancient, post-classical and early modern times have been overtaken by others due to changing balance of power, conflict and migration. The relative status of languages has also changed, as with the decline in prominence of French and German relative to English in the late 20th century. Pre-History Paleolithic (200,000–20,000 BP) The highly di ...
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Glottochronology
Glottochronology (from Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociolinguistics), prestige diale ... γλῶττα ''tongue, language'' and χρóνος ''time'') is the part of lexicostatistics Lexicostatistics is a method of comparative linguistics Comparative linguistics, or comparative-historical linguistics (formerly comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish ... which involves comparative linguistics and deals with the chronological relationship between languages.Sheila Embleton (1992). Historical Linguistics: Mathematical concepts. In W. Bright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Linguistics The idea was developed by Morris Swadesh Morris Swadesh (; January 22, 1909 – July 20, 1967) was an American linguist ...
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Natufian Culture
The Natufian culture () is a Late Epipaleolithic (Levant), Epipaleolithic archaeological culture of the Levant, dating to around 15,000 to 11,500 years ago. The culture was unusual in that it supported a Sedentism, sedentary or semi-sedentary population even before the introduction of agriculture. The Natufian communities may be the ancestors of the builders of the first Neolithic settlements of the region, which may have been the earliest in the world. Some evidence suggests deliberate cultivation of cereals, specifically rye, by the Natufian culture, at Tell Abu Hureyra, the site of earliest evidence of agriculture in the world. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making has been found at Shubayqa 1, a 14,500-year-old site in Jordan's northeastern desert. In addition, the oldest known evidence of beer, dating to approximately 13,000 Before Present, BP, was found at the Raqefet Cave in Mount Carmel near Haifa in Israel. Generally, though, Natufians exploited wild cereals and hun ...
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Latin Alphabet
The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studi ... to write the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... language and its extensions used to write modern languages. Etymology The term ''Latin alphabet'' may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin (as described in this article) or other alphabets based on the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, ...
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Consonantal
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and , pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and and , which have air flowing through the nose (nasal consonant, nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels. Since the number of speech sounds in the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, Linguistics, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant. The English alphabet has fewer consonant letters than the English language has consonant sounds, so Digraph (orthography), digraphs like , , , and are used to extend the alphabet, though some letters and digraphs represent more than ...
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Abjad
An abjad () is a type of writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, p ... in which (in contrast to true alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ...s) each symbol or glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arr ... stands for a consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies ...
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Phoenician Alphabet
The Phoenician alphabet is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ... (more specifically, an abjad An abjad () is a type of writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to th ...) known in modern times from the Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions The Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions, also known as Northwest Semitic inscriptions, are the primary extra-Biblical source for understanding of the society and history of the Ancient Hebrews, Phoenicians and Aramean people. Semitic inscriptions ma ... found across the Mediterranean region. The Phoenician alphabet is also called the Early Linear s ...
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Balearic Islands
The Balearic Islands ( , also , ; ca, Illes Balears ; es, Islas Baleares ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ... of islands in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ... in the western Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , on the south by , and on the east by the . The Sea has played a central role in the . Although the Mediterrane ..., near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** ...
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Phoenicia
Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...
thalassocratic A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa () , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power) is a s ...
(a state with primarily maritime realms)
civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterize ...
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Rondônia
Rondônia () is one of the 26 states of Brazil, located in the northern subdivision of the country (central-western part). To the west is NOT a short border with the state of Acre (state), Acre, to the north is the state of Amazonas, Brazil, Amazonas, in the east is Mato Grosso, and in the south and southwest is Bolivia. Rondônia has a population of 1,755,000 as of 2014. It is the fifth least populated state. Its capital and largest city is Porto Velho. The state was named after Cândido Rondon, who explored the north of the country during the 1910s. The state, which is home to 0.8% of the Brazilian population, is responsible for 0.6% of the Brazilian GDP. Geography Rondonia was originally home to over 200,000 km2 of tropical rainforest, rainforest, but has become one of the most deforestation, deforested places in the Amazon. By 2003 around 70,000 km2 of rainforest had been cleared. The area around the Guaporé River is part of the Beni savanna ecoregion. The Sam ...
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Madeira River
The Madeira River ( pt, Rio Madeira ) is a major waterway in South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent .... It is estimated to be in length, while the Madeira-Mamoré is estimated near or in length depending on the measuring party and their methods. The Madeira is the biggest tributary of the Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ..., accounting for about 15% of the water in the basin. A map from Emanuel Bowen ''A New & Accurate Map of Mexico or New Spain together with California, New Mexico &c''. Bowen, 1752 Emanuel Bowen (1694 - 8 May 176 ...
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Aripuanã
Aripuanã is a Municipalities of Brazil, municipality in the states of Brazil, state of Mato Grosso in the Central-West Region, Brazil, Central-West Region of Brazil. It is located on the banks of the Aripuanã River. The city is served by Aripuanã Airport. The municipality contains the Rio Flor do Prado Ecological Station, a fully protected environmental unit created in 2003. It also holds part of the Guariba-Roosevelt Extractive Reserve, a sustainable use unit created in 1996. References

Municipalities in Mato Grosso {{MatoGrosso-geo-stub ...
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Guaporé River
Guaporé River ( pt, Rio Guaporé, es, Río Iténez) is a river in western Brazil and northeastern Bolivia. It is long; of the river forms the border between Brazil and Bolivia. The Guaporé River is part of the Madeira River basin, which eventually empties into the Amazon River. The Guaporé River crosses the eastern part of the Beni savanna region. It forms the border of the Guaporé Biological Reserve, and is fed by rivers originating in the reserve, the São Miguel, Branco, São Simão, Massaco and Colorado. About 260 fish species are known from the Guaporé River basin, and about 25 of these are endemic.Hales, J., and P. Petry (2013). Guapore - Itenez'. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World. Retrieved 28 February 2013 While many fish species in the river essentially are Amazon Basin, Amazonian, the fauna in the Guaporé also has a connection with the Paraguay River (part of the Río de la Plata Basin). The Guaporé and the Paraguay, while flowing in different directions, bot ...
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