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Grandparent Visitation
Grandparent visitation is a legal right that grandparents in some jurisdictions may have to have court-ordered contact (or visitation) with their grandchildren. In no case is contact between grandparents and children considered an inalienable right. United States , all US states have statutes that permit non-parents to ask a court to grant them the legal right to maintain ongoing contact with a child. In many states, these statutes explicitly name grandparents and great-grandparents as potentially eligible people. These requests must be justifiable as being in the best interests of the child, and they may only apply under certain circumstances, such as after one parent dies or loses custody. The federal Supreme Court decision ''Troxel v. Granville'' in 2000 places limits on when states can grant visitation rights to third parties, including grandparents. State laws vary greatly, and no state guarantees that the grandparents will be able to obtain a court order granting them ...
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Grandparent
Grandparents, individually known as grandmother and grandfather, are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal. Every sexually-reproducing living organism who is not a genetic chimera has a maximum of four genetic grandparents, eight genetic great-grandparents, sixteen genetic great-great-grandparents, thirty-two genetic great-great-great-grandparents, sixty-four genetic great-great-great-great grandparents, etc. In the history of modern humanity, around 30,000 years ago, the number of modern humans who lived to be a grandparent increased. It is not known for certain what spurred this increase in longevity but largely results in the improved medical technology and living standard, but it is generally believed that a key consequence of three generations being alive together was the preservation of information which could otherwise have been lost; an example of this important information might have been where to find water in times of drought. In ...
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Pro Se Legal Representation In The United States
''Pro se'' legal representation ( or ) comes from Latin ''pro se'', meaning "for oneself" or "on behalf of themselves" which, in modern law, means to argue on one's own behalf in a legal proceeding, as a defendant or plaintiff in civil cases, or a defendant in criminal cases, rather than have representation from counsel or an attorney. This status is sometimes known as ''in propria persona'' (abbreviated to "pro per"). In England and Wales the comparable status is that of "litigant in person". Prevalence According to the National Center for State Courts in the United States, as of 2006 ''pro se'' litigants had become more common in both state courts and federal courts. Estimates of the ''pro se'' rate of family law overall averaged 67% in California, 73% in Florida's large counties, and 70% in some Wisconsin counties. In San Diego, for example, the number of divorce filings involving at least one ''pro se'' litigant rose from 46% in 1992 to 77% in 2000, in Florida from 6 ...
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Comstock V
Comstock may refer to: Places * Comstock Northwest, Michigan, a census-designated place *Comstock Park, Michigan, a census-designated place and unincorporated community *Comstock Township, Michigan *Comstock, Minnesota, a city *Comstock Township, Marshall County, Minnesota *Comstock, Nebraska, a village * Comstock Township, Custer County, Nebraska * Comstock, North Dakota, an unincorporated community *Comstock, Texas, an unincorporated community *Comstock, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community *Comstock (crater), a lunar crater Ships * USS ''Comstock'' (LSD-19), a dock landing ship of the United States Navy * USS ''Comstock'' (LSD-45), a dock landing ship of the United States Navy Other uses * Comstock (surname), including a list of people with the name *Comstock Hall (Ithaca, New York), a building of Cornell University * Comstock High School, near Kalamazoo, Michigan *Comstock Lode and mines in Virginia City, Nevada *Comstock canned pie filling, line of products sold by the Dun ...
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Overbreadth Doctrine
In American jurisprudence, the overbreadth doctrine is primarily concerned with facial challenges to laws under the First Amendment. Description When federal or state laws are challenged in the United States court system for their constitutionality, they may be either challenged based on a facial challenge, challenging the whole of the law or provision and all applications of it, or may be through an as-applied challenge for a specific case or set of circumstances. Outside of First Amendment cases, most constitutional challenges are based on as-applied challenges, the facial challenge being "the most difficult challenge to mount successfully, since the challenger must establish that no set of circumstances exists under which the Act would be valid", as stated in ''United States v. Salerno''. However, for laws involving the First Amendment, the Courts will consider a law invalidated as though through a facial challenge "if a substantial number of its applications are unconstitut ...
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Burden Of Proof (law)
In a legal dispute, one party has the burden of proof to show that they are correct, while the other party had no such burden and is presumed to be correct. The burden of proof requires a party to produce evidence to establish the truth of facts needed to satisfy all the required legal elements of the dispute. The burden of proof is usually on the person who brings a claim in a dispute. It is often associated with the Latin maxim ''semper necessitas probandi incumbit ei qui agit'', a translation of which is: "the necessity of proof always lies with the person who lays charges." In civil suits, for example, the plaintiff bears the burden of proof that the defendant's action or inaction caused injury to the plaintiff, and the defendant bears the burden of proving an affirmative defense. The burden of proof is on the prosecutor for criminal cases, and the defendant is presumed innocent. If the claimant fails to discharge the burden of proof to prove their case, the claim will be ...
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Prima Facie
''Prima facie'' (; ) is a Latin expression meaning ''at first sight'' or ''based on first impression''. The literal translation would be 'at first face' or 'at first appearance', from the feminine forms of ''primus'' ('first') and ''facies'' ('face'), both in the ablative case. In modern, colloquial and conversational English, a common translation would be "on the face of it". The term ''prima facie'' is used in modern legal English (including both civil law and criminal law) to signify that upon initial examination, sufficient corroborating evidence appears to exist to support a case. In common law jurisdictions, a reference to ''prima facie evidence'' denotes evidence that, unless rebutted, would be sufficient to prove a particular proposition or fact. The term is used similarly in academic philosophy. Most legal proceedings, in most jurisdictions, require a ''prima facie'' case to exist, following which proceedings may then commence to test it, and create a ruling. Bur ...
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United States Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all U.S. federal court cases, and over state court cases that involve a point of federal law. It also has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, specifically "all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party." The court holds the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution. It is also able to strike down presidential directives for violating either the Constitution or statutory law. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction. The court may decide cases having political overtones, but has ruled that it does not have power to decide non-justiciable political questions. Established by Article Three of the United States C ...
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Right To Counsel
In criminal law, the right to counsel means a defendant has a legal right to have the assistance of counsel (i.e., lawyers) and, if the defendant cannot afford a lawyer, requires that the government appoint one or pay the defendant's legal expenses. The right to counsel is generally regarded as a constituent of the right to a fair trial. Historically, however, not all countries have always recognized the right to counsel. The right is often included in national constitutions. Of the 194 constitutions currently in force, 153 have language to this effect. Around the world Australia In Australia, suspects and defendants have the right to have legal representation during investigation and trial. Australian law does not recognize a right to publicly-funded legal defense, but does recognize that in the absence of counsel the accused may not receive a fair trial as mandated by law. Only the states of Victoria and New South Wales have dedicated public defender systems. Courts have th ...
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Born Out Of Wedlock
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce. Conversely, ''illegitimacy'', also known as ''bastardy'', has been the status of a child born outside marriage, such a child being known as a bastard, a love child, a natural child, or illegitimate. In Scots law, the terms natural son and natural daughter bear the same implications. The importance of legitimacy has decreased substantially in Western countries since the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s and the declining influence of conservative Christian churches in family and social life. Births outside marriage now represent a large majority in many countries of Western Europe and the Americas, as well as in many former European colonies. In many Western-influenced cultures, stigma based on parents' marital status, and use of the word ''bastard'', are now widely consider ...
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Contact (law)
In family law, contact, visitation and access are synonym terms that denotes the time that a child spends with the noncustodial parent, according to an agreed or court specified parenting schedule.Cambridge DictionaryVisitation/ref> The visitation term is not used in a shared parenting arrangement where the mother and father have joint physical custody.Jennifer Wolf, Types of custody and visitation, Very Well Family, January 27, 2019. Unsupervised visitation is the most common type, when the parent may take the child to his or her home or enjoy any outing with the child. In supervised visitation, another adult must be present, and there is sometimes a court order to occur at a predetermined supervised child contact centre. Virtual visitation uses video-conferencing technology to allow contact when a child lives far away from the parent. Concept In most jurisdictions the nature of a couple's relationship is established when a child is born to that relationship. In law, there ...
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Fundamental Rights
Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognized by a high degree of protection from encroachment. These rights are specifically identified in a constitution, or have been found under due process of law. The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal 16, established in 2015, underscores the link between promoting human rights and sustaining peace. List of important rights Some universally recognised rights that are seen as fundamental, i.e., contained in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the U.N. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, or the U.N. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, include the following: * Right to self-determination * Right to liberty * Right to due process of law * Right to freedom of movement * Right to privacy * Right to freedom of thought * Right to freedom of religion * Right to freedom of expression * Right to peaceful assembly * Right to freedom of association Spe ...
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Child Custody
Child custody is a legal term regarding '' guardianship'' which is used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent or guardian and a child in that person's care. Child custody consists of ''legal custody'', which is the right to make decisions about the child, and ''physical custody'', which is the right and duty to house, provide and care for the child. Married parents normally have joint legal and physical custody of their children. Decisions about child custody typically arise in proceedings involving divorce, annulment, separation, adoption or parental death. In most jurisdictions child custody is determined in accordance with the best interests of the child standard. Following ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in most countries, terms such as parental responsibility, "residence" and " contact" (also known as "visitation", "conservatorship" or "parenting time" in the United States) have superseded the concepts of ...
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