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Ghg Footprint
A carbon footprint is the total Greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an individual, event, organization, service, place or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. Greenhouse gases, including the carbon-containing gases carbon dioxide and methane, can be emitted through the burning of fossil fuels, land clearance and the production and consumption of food, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, transportation and other services. The term was popularized by a $250 million advertising campaign by the oil and gas company BP in an attempt to move public attention away from restricting the activities of fossil fuel companies and onto individual responsibility for solving climate change. In most cases, the total carbon footprint cannot be calculated exactly because of inadequate knowledge of and data about the complex interactions between contributing processes, including the influence of natural processes that store or release c ...
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Citing Sources
A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second object. It is called a ''name ... to a source. More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally, the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). References to single, machine-readable assertions in electronic scientific articles are known as nanopublications, a form of microattribution The term microattribution (a form of dat ...
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Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical region ..., and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Force, forces and control Motion, movement ...s, new chemical manufacturing The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characterist ...
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Ogilvy (agency)
Ogilvy is a New York City-based British advertising, marketing, and public relations agency. It was founded in 1850 by Edmund Mather as a London-based advertising agency, agency. In 1964, the firm became known as Ogilvy & Mather after merging with a New York City agency that was founded in 1948 by David Ogilvy (businessman), David Ogilvy. The agency is now part of the WPP Group, one of the largest advertising and public relations companies in the world. The company provides services in six areas: brand strategy, advertising, customer engagement and commerce, public relations and influence, digital transformation, and partnerships. The company's strategy division OgilvyRED became Ogilvy Consulting. History Foundation The agency was founded in London in 1850, when Edmund Charles Mather began an advertising agency on Fleet Street. By the 1860s, Mather had a US branch called Mather & Abbott at 335 Broadway, New York City. After Mather's death in 1886, his son, Harley Lawrence Math ...
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Land Footprint
Land footprint is the real amount of land, wherever it is in the world, that is needed to produce a product, or used by an organisation or by a nation.Giljum, S., Lutter, S., Bruckner, M., Aparcana, S., Heinke, J., Gerten, D. et al. (2013, May 3). State-of-Play of National Consumption-Based Indicators: A review and evaluation of available methods and data to calculate footprint-type (consumption-based) indicators for materials, water, land and carbon.
Vienna: Sustainable Europe Research Institute.


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Water Footprint
A water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption Consumption may refer to: *Resource consumption *Tuberculosis, an infectious disease, historically in biology: * Consumption (ecology), receipt of energy by consuming other organisms in social sciences: * Consumption (economics), the purchasing of ... by people. The water footprint of an individual, community, or business is defined as the total volume of fresh water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in ... used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business. Water use is measured in water volume consumed ( evaporated) and/or polluted per unit of time. A water footprint can be calculated for any well-defined group of consumer A consumer is a ...
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Mathis Wackernagel
Mathis Wackernagel is a Switzerland, Swiss-born sustainability advocate. He is President of Global Footprint Network, an international sustainability think tank with offices in Oakland, California; Brussels, Belgium, and Geneva, Switzerland. The think-tank is a non-profit that focuses on developing and promoting Metric (mathematics), metrics for sustainability. After earning a degree in mechanical engineering from the ETH Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, he completed his Ph.D. in community planning, community and regional planning at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada in 1994. There, in his doctoral dissertation under Professor William Rees (academic), William Rees, he worked with Rees in developing Rees' ecological footprint concept and further developed the methodology for it. He has worked on sustainability issues for organizations in Europe, Latin America, North America, Asia and Australia. Wackernagel previously served as the director of ...
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William E
William is a male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ... given name of Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ... origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for fre ..., 2nd edition, , p. 276. It became very popular in the English language English is a ...
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Ecological Footprint
The ecological footprint is a method promoted by the Global Footprint Network Global Footprint Network, founded in 2003, is an independent think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Resear ... to measure human demand on natural capital on "natural capital" and "balancing the budget of our resources" File:Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory.jpg, Fires along the Rio Xingu, Brazil - NASA Earth Observatory. Loss of natural capital assets may have significant ..., i.e. the quantity of nature it takes to support people or an economy. It tracks this demand through an ecological accounting system. The accounts contrast the biologically productive area people use for their consumption to the biologically productive area available within a region or the world (biocapacity The biocapacity or biological capacity of an ecosyste ...
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Fluorinated Gases
Fluorinated gases (F-gases) are man-made gases that can stay in the atmosphere for centuries and contribute to a global greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without this atmosphere. Radiatively active gases (i.e., es) in a planet's atmosphere radi .... There are four types: hydrofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are man-made organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, and are the most common type of organofluorine compounds. Most are gases at room temperature and pressure. They are frequently used in air condition ... (HFCs), perfluorocarbons Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e., they contain only carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Char ... (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride ...
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Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, or nos, is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be ..., an oxide of nitrogen with the formula In , a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a . The informal use of the term ''formula'' in science refers to the . The plural of ''formula'' can be either ''formulas'' (from the mos ... . At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable , Germany Image:Tu braunschweig 750 grad ofen.jpg, 250px, Germany, German test apparatus for determining combustibility at Technische Universität Braunschweig A combustible material is something that can combust (burn) in air. Flammable materi ... gas Gas is one of the four fundamental ...
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By-product
A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ... process or chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...; it is not the primary product or service being produced. A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste: for example, bran 300px, Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain A cereal is any Poaceae, grass cultivated (grown) for the edible componen ...
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Infrared
Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ... (EMR) with wavelength In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It is the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase (waves), phase on the wave, such as two adja ...s longer than those of visible light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nano .... It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths ...
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