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Full-text Scholarly Online Databases
In Document retrieval, text retrieval, full-text search, sometimes referred to as free-text-search refers to techniques for searching a single computer-stored document or a collection in a full-text database. Full-text search is distinguished from searches based on metadata or on parts of the original texts represented in databases (such as titles, abstracts, selected sections, or bibliographical references). In a full-text search, a search engine examines all of the words in every stored document as it tries to match search criteria (for example, text specified by a user). Full-text-searching techniques became common in online bibliographic databases in the 1990s. Many websites and application programs (such as word processing software) provide full-text-search capabilities. Some web search engines, such as AltaVista, employ full-text-search techniques, while others index only a portion of the web pages examined by their indexing systems. Indexing When dealing with a small number ...
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Document Retrieval
Document retrieval is defined as the matching of some stated user query against a set of free-text records. These records could be any type of mainly natural language, unstructured text, such as newspaper articles, real estate records or paragraphs in a manual. User queries can range from multi-sentence full descriptions of an information need to a few words. Document retrieval is sometimes referred to as, or as a branch of, text retrieval. Text retrieval is a branch of information retrieval where the information is stored primarily in the form of natural language, text. Text databases became decentralized thanks to the personal computer. Text retrieval is a critical area of study today, since it is the fundamental basis of all internet search engines. Description Document retrieval systems find information to given criteria by matching text records (''documents'') against user queries, as opposed to expert systems that answer questions by Inference, inferring over a logical knowled ...
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Stemming
In linguistic morphology In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ... and information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing and information science is the process of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources. Searches can be based on full-text search, fu ..., stemming is the process of reducing inflected (or sometimes derived) words to their word stem In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many languages, words also corres ..., base or root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), a ...
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Record (computer Science)
In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ..., a record (also called a structure, struct In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algori ..., or compound data) is a basic data structure. Records in a database or spreadsheet are usually called "row (database), rows". A record is a collection of ''Field (computer science), fields'', possibly of different data types, typically in a fixed number and sequence. The fields of a record may also be called ''members'', particularly in object-oriented programming; fields may also be called ''elements'', though this risk ...
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Field (computer Science)
In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , , and . Computer science ..., data that has several parts, known as a '' record,'' can be divided into fields (data fields). Relational database A relational database is a digital database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the tha ...s arrange data as sets of database record In the context of a relational database A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A software system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database manag ...s, so called rows. Each record consists of several ''field ...
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Index Term
An index term, subject term, subject heading, descriptor, or keyword, in information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ..., is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesaurus (information retrieval), thesauri, Taxonomy (general), taxonomies and other knowledge orga ... for use in bibliographic recordA bibliographic record is an entry in a bibliographic index (or a library catalog) which represents and describes a specific resource. A bibliographic record contains the data elements necessary to help users identify and retrieve that resource, as w ...s. ...
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Electronic Discovery
Electronic discovery (also e-discovery or ediscovery) refers to discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something previously unrecognized as meaningful. With reference to sciences and academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic fi ... in legal proceedings such as litigation A lawsuit is a proceeding by a party or parties against another in the civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil ..., government investigations, or Freedom of Information Act Freedom of Information Act may refer to the following legislations in different jurisdictions which mandate the national government to disclose certain data to the general public upon request: * Freedom of Information Act 1982 The ''Freedom of Inf ... requests, where the information sought is in electronic format ...
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Bayesian Inference
Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. Bayesian inference is an important technique in statistics, and especially in mathematical statistics. Bayesian updating is particularly important in the Sequential analysis, dynamic analysis of a sequence of data. Bayesian inference has found application in a wide range of activities, including science, engineering, philosophy, medicine, sport, and law. In the philosophy of decision theory, Bayesian inference is closely related to subjective probability, often called "Bayesian probability". Introduction to Bayes' rule Formal explanation Bayesian inference derives the posterior probability as a consequence relation, consequence of two Antecedent (logic), antecedents: a prior probability and a "likelihood function" derived from a statistical model for the observed data. Bayesian inference computes ...
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Type I And Type II Errors
In statistical hypothesis testing A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, Data cleansing, cleansing, Data transformation, transforming, and Data ..., a type I error is the mistaken rejection of an actually true null hypothesis In inferential statistics, the null hypothesis (often denoted ''H''0) is that there is no difference between two possibilities. The null hypothesis is that the observed difference is due to chance alone. Using statistical tests it is possible to ... (also known as a "false positive" finding or conclusion; example: "an innocent person is convicted"), while a type II error is the mistaken acceptance of an actually false null hypothesis (also known as a "false negative" finding or conclusion; example: "a guilty person is not convicted"). Much of statistical theory revolves around the minimization of one or both of these e ...
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Relevance (information Retrieval)
In information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability a ... and information retrieval Information retrieval (IR) in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer h ..., relevance denotes how well a retrieved document or set of documents meets the information need The term information need is often understood as an individual or group's desire to locate and obtain information to satisfy a conscious or unconscious need. Rarely mentioned in general literature about needs, it is a common term in information scie ... of the user. Relevance may include concerns such as timeliness, authority or novelty of the ...
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Tag (metadata)
In information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...s, a tag is a keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark In the context of the World Wide Web, a bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is stored for later retrieval in any of various storage formats. All modern web browsers include Comparison of web browsers#Browser features, bookmark fea ..., digital image A digital image is an composed of s, also known as ''pixels'', each with ', ' of numeric representation for its or that is an output from its fed as input by its denoted with ''x'', ''y'' on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Depending on ..., database record, or computer file A computer file is a computer resource for recording data ...
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Controlled Vocabulary
Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing Subject indexing is the act of describing or classifying a document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, m ... schemes, subject headingAn index term, subject term, subject heading, or descriptor, in information retrieval, is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integr ...s, thesauri A thesaurus (plural ''thesauri'' or ''thesauruses'') or synonym dictionary is a reference work for finding synonyms and sometimes antonyms of words. They are often used by writers to help find the best word to express an idea: Synonym dictiona ..., taxonomies and other knowledge organization systemKnowledge Organization Sy ...
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