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Forensic Disciplines
Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to Criminal law, criminal and Civil law (legal system), civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. Still others are involved in analysis of financial, banking, or other numerical data for use in financial crime investigation, and can be employed as consultants from private firms, academia, or as government employees. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the Prosecutor, prosecuti ...
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Science
Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ... in the form of testable Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components: #Falsifiability or defeasibility, which means that counterexamples to the hypothesis are logically possible. #The practical feasibility of observing a reproducibi ... explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence l ...s and predictions frame, '' The Old Farmer's Almanac'' is famous in the US for its (not necessarily accurate) long-r ...
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Song Ci
Song Ci (; 1186–1249) was a Chinese physician, judge, forensic medical scientist, anthropologist, and writer of the Southern Song The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ... dynasty. He is most well known for being the world's first forensic entomologist Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the invasion of the succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations. It is the application and study o ..., having recorded his experience examining bodies for judicial cases in the ''Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified ''Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified'' or the ''Washing Away of Wrongs'' is a Chinese literature, Chinese book written by Song Ci in 1247 during the S ...
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Pathology
Pathology is the study of the causesCauses, or causality, is the relationship between one event and another. It may also refer to: * Causes (band), an indie band based in the Netherlands * Causes (company), an online company See also * Cause (other) {{disambiguation ... and effects of disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting ... or injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defined as "changes introduced into a system that adversely affect its .... The word ''pathology'' also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life ...
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Italian People
Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the Court ... ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ... native to the Italian geographical region The Italian geographical region (aka Italian physical region or Italian region) is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( hu ... and its neighboring insular territories. Italians share a common Italian culture, culture, History of Italy, history, Cultural heritage, ...
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Surgery
Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning "hand work". is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure, operation, or simply "surgery". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instrument A surgical instrument is a tool or device for performing specific actions or carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it. Over time, many different kinds of ...s or surgical nurse A surgical nurse, also referred to as a theatre nurse or scrub nurse, specializes in periopera ...
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Manner Of Death
In many legal jurisdictions Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the legal term for the authority granted to a legal entity to enact justice. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area (: locati ..., the manner of death is a determination, typically made by the coroner A coroner is a government or judicial official who is empowered to conduct or order an inquest An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is t ..., medical examiner The medical examiner is an appointed official An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and pa ..., police, or similar officials, and recorded as a vital statistic. Within the United States and the United Kingdom, ...
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Ambroise Paré
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II of France, Henry II, Francis II of France, Francis II, Charles IX of France, Charles IX and Henry III of France, Henry III. He is considered one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology and a pioneer in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially in the treatment of wounds. He was also an anatomist, invented several surgical instruments, and was a member of the Parisian barber surgeon guild. In his personal notes about the care he delivered to Captain Rat, in the Piémont campaign (1537–1538), Paré wrote: ''Je le pansai, Dieu le guérit'' ("I bandaged him and God healed him"). This epitomises a philosophy that he used throughout his career. These words, inscribed on his statue in Laval, Mayenne, Laval, are reminiscent of the Latin adage ''medicus curat, natura sanat''. Early life Paré was born in 1510 in Bourg-Hersent in northwester ...
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Middle-East
The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, conditions ...: ) is a geopolitical term that commonly refers to the region spanning the Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ..., Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ..., Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian ...
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China
China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the .... It is the world's most populous country, with a population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ... of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical time zones Time is the continued of and that occurs in an apparently succession from the , through the , into the . It is a component quantity of various s used to events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, and to of ... and borders 1 ...
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Polygraph Test
A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector test, is a device or procedure that measures and records several physiological indicators such as blood pressure Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motio ..., pulse In medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge) ..., respiration Respiration may refer to: Biology * Cellular respiration, the process in which nutrients are converted into useful energy in a cell ** Anaerobic respiration, cellular respiration without oxygen ** Maintenance respiration, the amount of cellular ..., and skin conductivity while a person is asked ...
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Cartilage
Cartilage (cartilaginous tissue) is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue Elastic is a word often used to describe or identify certain types of elastomer An elastomer is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consistin ..., rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa dubit ...s at the joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones protect the various organs of th ...s and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage The rib cage is th ...
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Strangulation
Strangling is compression of the neck that may lead to unconsciousness Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost. It involves a complete, or near-complete, lack of responsiveness to people and other environmental stimulus A stimulus is somethin ... or death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ... by causing an increasingly hypoxic state in the brain. Fatal strangling typically occurs in cases of violence, accidents, and is one of two main ways that hanging Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose A noose is a loop at the end of a rope in which the knot tightens under load and can be loosened without untying the knot. The knot can be used to secure a rope to a post, pole, or a ...
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