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Exothermic Reaction
In thermochemistry, an exothermic reaction is a "reaction for which the overall standard enthalpy change Δ''H''⚬ is negative." Exothermic reactions usually release heat. The term is often confused with exergonic reaction, which IUPAC defines as "... a reaction for which the overall standard Gibbs energy change Δ''G''⚬ is negative." A strongly exothermic reaction will usually also be exergonic because Δ''H''⚬ makes a major contribution to Δ''G''⚬. Most of the spectacular chemical reactions that are demonstrated in classrooms are exothermic and exergonic. The opposite is an endothermic reaction, which usually takes up heat and is driven by an entropy increase in the system. Examples Examples are numerous: combustion, the thermite reaction, combining strong acids and bases, polymerizations. As an example in everyday life, hand warmers make use of the oxidation of iron to achieve an exothermic reaction: :4Fe  + 3O2  → 2Fe2O3  ...
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Reaction Calorimeter
A reaction calorimeter is a calorimeter that measures the amount of energy released ( exothermic) or absorbed (endothermic) by a chemical reaction. These measurements provide a more accurate picture of such reactions. Applications When considering scaling up a reaction to large scale from lab scale, it is important to understand how much heat is released. At a small scale, heat released may not cause a concern, however when scaling up, build up can be extremely dangerous. Crystallizing a reaction product from solution is a highly cost effective purification technique. It is therefore valuable to be able to measure how effectively crystallization is taking place in order to be able to optimize it. The heat absorbed by the process can be a useful measure. The energy being released by any process in the form of heat is directly proportional to the rate of reaction and hence reaction calorimetry (as a time resolved measurement technique) can be used to study kinetics. The use of r ...
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Exothermic Process
In thermodynamics, an exothermic process () is a thermodynamic process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen). The term ''exothermic'' was first coined by 19th-century French chemist Marcellin Berthelot. The opposite of an exothermic process is an endothermic process, one that absorbs energy usually in the form of heat. The concept is frequently applied in the physical sciences to chemical reactions where chemical bond energy is converted to thermal energy (heat). Two types of chemical reactions Exothermic and endothermic describe two types of chemical reactions or systems found in nature, as follows: Exothermic After an exothermic reaction, more energy has been released to the surroundings than was absorbed to initiate and maintain the reaction. An example would be the burn ...
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Exergonic Reaction
In chemical thermodynamics, an exergonic reaction is a chemical reaction where the change in the free energy is negative (there is a net release of free energy). This indicates a spontaneous reaction if the system is closed and initial and final temperatures are the same. For processes that take place in a closed system at constant pressure and temperature, the Gibbs free energy is used, whereas the Helmholtz energy is relevant for processes that take place at constant volume and temperature. Any reaction occurring at constant temperature without input of electrical or photon energy is exergonic, according to the second law of thermodynamics. An example is cellular respiration. Symbolically, the release of free energy, , in an exergonic reaction (at constant pressure and temperature) is denoted as :\Delta G=G_-G_<0.\, Although exergonic reactions are said to occur ''spontaneously'', this does not imply that the reaction will take place at an observable
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Endergonic Reaction
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (; also called a heat absorbing nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and an additional driving force is needed to perform this reaction. In layman's terms, the total amount of useful energy is negative (it takes more energy to start the reaction than what is received out of it) so the total energy is a net negative result. For an overall gain in the net result, see exergonic reaction. Another way to phrase this is that useful energy must be absorbed from the surroundings into the workable system for the reaction to happen. Under constant temperature and constant pressure conditions, this means that the change in the standard Gibbs free energy would be positive, :\Delta G^\circ > 0 for the reaction at standard state (i.e. at standard pressure (1 bar), and standard concentrations (1 molar) of all the reagents). In metabolism, an ...
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Exergonic
An exergonic process is one which there is a positive flow of energy from the system to the surroundings. This is in contrast with an endergonic process. Constant pressure, constant temperature reactions are exergonic if and only if the Gibbs free energy change is negative (∆''G'' < 0). "Exergonic" (from the prefix exo-, derived for the Greek word ἔξω ''exō'', "outside" and the suffix -ergonic, derived from the Greek word ἔργον ''ergon'', "") means "releasing energy in the form of work". In thermodynamics, work is defined as the energy moving from the system (the internal region) to the (the external region) d ...
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Endergonic
In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (; also called a heat absorbing nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and an additional driving force is needed to perform this reaction. In layman's terms, the total amount of useful energy is negative (it takes more energy to start the reaction than what is received out of it) so the total energy is a net negative result. For an overall gain in the net result, see exergonic reaction. Another way to phrase this is that useful energy must be absorbed from the surroundings into the workable system for the reaction to happen. Under constant temperature and constant pressure conditions, this means that the change in the standard Gibbs free energy would be positive, :\Delta G^\circ > 0 for the reaction at standard state (i.e. at standard pressure (1 bar), and standard concentrations (1 molar) of all the reagents). In metabolism, an e ...
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Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment. Generally, the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. The reference sample should have a well-defined heat capacity over the range of temperatures to be scanned. The technique was developed by E. S. Watson and M. J. O'Neill in 1962, and introduced commercially at the 1963 Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. The first adiabatic differential scanning calorimeter that could be used in biochemistry was developed by P. L. Privalov and D. R. Monaselidze in 1964 at Institute of Physics in Tbilisi, Georgia. The term DSC was coined to descr ...
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Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics. Chemical thermodynamics involves not only laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods to the study of chemical questions and the ''spontaneity'' of processes. The structure of chemical thermodynamics is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics. Starting from the first and second laws of thermodynamics, four equations called the "fundamental equations of Gibbs" can be derived. From these four, a multitude of equations, relating the thermodynamic properties of the thermodynamic system can be derived using relatively simple mathematics. This outlines the mathematical framework of chemical thermodynamics. History In 1865, the German physicist Rudolf Clausius, in his ''Mechanical Theory of Heat'', suggested that the principles o ...
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Bond Energy
In chemistry, bond energy (''BE''), also called the mean bond enthalpy or average bond enthalpy is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond. IUPAC defines bond energy as the average value of the gas-phase bond-dissociation energy (usually at a temperature of 298.15 K) for all bonds of the same type within the same chemical species. The bond dissociation energy (enthalpy) is also referred to as bond disruption energy, bond energy, bond strength, or binding energy (abbreviation: ''BDE'', ''BE'', or ''D''). It is defined as the standard enthalpy change of the following fission: R - ''X'' → R + ''X''. The ''BDE'', denoted by Dº(R - ''X''), is usually derived by the thermochemical equation, : \begin \mathrmX) \ = \Delta H^\circ_f\mathrm + \Delta H^\circ_f(X) - \Delta H^\circ_f(\mathrmX) \end The enthalpy of formation Δ''Hf''º of a large number of atoms, free radicals, ions, clusters and compounds is available from the websites of NIST, NASA, CODATA, and IUPAC. Most au ...
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Stoichiometry
Stoichiometry refers to the relationship between the quantities of reactants and products before, during, and following chemical reactions. Stoichiometry is founded on the law of conservation of mass where the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products, leading to the insight that the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of positive integers. This means that if the amounts of the separate reactants are known, then the amount of the product can be calculated. Conversely, if one reactant has a known quantity and the quantity of the products can be empirically determined, then the amount of the other reactants can also be calculated. This is illustrated in the image here, where the balanced equation is: : Here, one molecule of methane reacts with two molecules of oxygen gas to yield one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water. This particular chemical equation is an example of complete combustion. ...
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