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Enterprise Resource Planning
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of main business processes, often in real time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is usually referred to as a category of business management software—typically a suite of integrated applications—that an organization can use to collect, store, manage and interpret data from many business activities. ERP systems can be local based or cloud-based. Cloud-based applications have grown in recent years due to information being readily available from any location with Internet access. Traditional on-premise ERP systems are now considered legacy technology. ERP provides an integrated and continuously updated view of core business processes using common databases maintained by a database management system. ERP systems track business resources—cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, and payroll. The applications that make up the system s ...
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ERP Modules
ERP or Erp may refer to: Acronyms Economics * Effective rate of protection of tariffs * Equity risk premium, excess return on risky investments * European Recovery Program or Marshall Plan Medicine * Effective refractory period, in a cardiac cycle * Estrogen receptor positive, a cancer pathology test result * Event-related potential, a measured brain response * Exposure and response prevention, a treatment method in behavioral therapy * OspE/F-like related protein, in Lyme disease microbiology Other acronyms * Effective radiated power, of directional radio transmission * ''Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo'' (other), (Spanish for People's Revolutionary Army), various Latin American communist or socialist organizations * Electronic Road Pricing, in Singapore * Energy-related products, that use or affect energy consumption * Enterprise resource planning, a business process system People * Erp (Pict), father of Drest I of the Picts Places * Erp, Ariège, France, a vi ...
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Gartner
Gartner, Inc is a technological research and consulting firm based in Stamford, Connecticut that conducts research on technology and shares this research both through private consulting as well as executive programs and conferences. Its clients include large corporations, government agencies, technology companies, and investment firms. In 2018, the company reported that its client base consisted of over 12,000 organizations in over 100 countries. As of 2022, Gartner has over 15,000 employees located in over 100 offices worldwide. It is a member of the S&P 500. History Gideon Gartner founded Gartner, Inc in 1979. Originally private, the company launched publicly as Gartner Group in 1986 before Saatchi & Saatchi acquired it in 1988. In 1990, Gartner Group was acquired by some of its executives, including Gartner himself, with funding from Bain Capital and Dun & Bradstreet. The company went public again in 1993. In 2000, the name was simplified from ''Gartner Group'' to ...
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Customer
In sales, commerce, and economics, a customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration. Etymology and terminology Early societies relied on a gift economy based on favours. Later, as commerce developed, less permanent human relations were formed, depending more on transitory needs rather than enduring social desires. Customers are generally said to be the purchasers of goods and services, while clients are those who receive personalized advice and solutions. Although such distinctions have no contemporary semantic weight, agencies such as law firms, film studios, and health care providers tend to prefer '' client'', while grocery stores, banks, and restaurants tend to prefer '' customer'' instead. Clients The term client is derived from Latin ''clients'' or ''care'' ...
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Back Office
A back office in most corporations is where work that supports ''front office'' work is done. The front office is the "face" of the company and is all the resources of the company that are used to make sales and interact with customers and clients. The back office is all the resources of the company that are devoted to actually producing a product or service such as data entry, payroll, accounting and all the other labor that is not seen by customers, such as administration or logistics. Broadly speaking, back office work includes roles that affect the costs side of a business's trading statement and front office work includes roles that affect the income side of a business's trading statement. Although the operations of a back office are seldom prominent, they are a major contributor to a business's success. They can include functions such as accounting, planning, inventory management, supply-chain management, human resources and logistics. Back offices are often located somew ...
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Year 2000 Problem
The year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, Y2K scare, millennium bug, Y2K bug, Y2K glitch, Y2K error, or simply Y2K refers to potential computer errors related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates in and after the year 2000. Many programs represented four-digit years with only the final two digits, making the year 2000 indistinguishable from 1900. Computer systems' inability to distinguish dates correctly had the potential to bring down worldwide infrastructures for industries ranging from banking to air travel. In the years leading up to the turn of the century (millennium), the public gradually became aware of the "Y2K scare", and individual companies predicted the global damage caused by the bug would require anything between $400 million and $600 billion to rectify. A lack of clarity regarding the potential dangers of the bug led some to stock up on food, water, and firearms, purchase backup generators, and withdraw large sums of money in an ...
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Association For Information Systems
The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is an international, not-for-profit, professional association for scholars of information systems that was established in 1994. The association publishes journals, organizes conferences, and provides a forum for information systems professors and managers. It has members in more than 100 countries. The association is led by a president who is annually elected from one of three world regions—the Americas, Europe and Africa and Asia-Pacific—on a rotating basis. The governing council is made up of elected functional vice-presidents and other officers and council members who are elected in the three world regions. The association organizes four annual conferences for IS researchers, educators and students: The International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), which alternates between the three world regions, and three regional conferences: the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), the European Conference on Info ...
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Maintenance, Repair And Operations
The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational; these activities occur either before or after a failure. Definitions Maintenance functions can defined as maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO), and MRO is also used for maintenance, repair and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized. The United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions:Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188 and from the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms * Any activity—such as tests, measurements, replacements, adjustments, and repairs—intended to retain or restore a func ...
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Computer-integrated Manufacturing
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process. This integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each part. Manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone by the integration of computers. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes based on real-time input from sensors. It is also known as ''flexible design and manufacturing''. Overview # Computer-integrated manufacturing is used in automotive, aviation, space, and ship building industries. # The term "computer-integrated manufacturing" is both a method of manufacturing and the name of a computer-automated system in which individual engineering, production, marketing, and support functions of a manufacturing enterprise are organized. # In a CIM system functional areas such as design, analysis, planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked through the computer with fact ...
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Manufacturing Resource Planning
Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) is defined as a method for the effective planning of all resources of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning, and has a simulation capability to answer " what-if" questions and is an extension of closed-loop MRP (Material Requirements Planning). This is not exclusively a software function, but the management of people skills, requiring a dedication to database accuracy, and sufficient computer resources. It is a total company management concept for using human and company resources more productively. Key functions and features MRP II is not a proprietary software system and can thus take many forms. It is almost impossible to visualize an MRP II system that does not use a computer, but an MRP II system can be based on either purchased–licensed or in-house software. Almost every MRP II system is modular in construction. Characteristic basic modules in an MRP II system are: * Ma ...
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Material Requirements Planning
Material requirements planning (MRP) is a production planning, scheduling, and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems are software-based, but it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. An MRP system is intended to simultaneously meet three objectives: * Ensure raw materials are available for production and products are available for delivery to customers. * Maintain the lowest possible material and product levels in store * Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities. History Prior to MRP, and before computers dominated industry, reorder point (ROP)/reorder-quantity (ROQ) type methods like EOQ (economic order quantity) had been used in manufacturing and inventory management. MRP was computerized by the aero engine makers Rolls-Royce and General Electric in the early 1950s but not commercialized by them. It was then 'reinvented' to supply the Polaris program and then, in 1964, as a respon ...
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Acronym And Initialism
An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase. Acronyms are usually formed from the initial letters of words, as in ''NATO'' (''North Atlantic Treaty Organization''), but sometimes use syllables, as in ''Benelux'' (short for ''Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg''). They can also be a mixture, as in ''radar'' (''Radio Detection And Ranging''). Acronyms can be pronounced as words, like ''NASA'' and ''UNESCO''; as individual letters, like ''FBI'', '' TNT'', and ''ATM''; or as both letters and words, like ''JPEG'' (pronounced ') and ''IUPAC''. Some are not universally pronounced one way or the other and it depends on the speaker's preference or the context in which it is being used, such as '' SQL'' (either "sequel" or "ess-cue-el"). The broader sense of ''acronym''—the meaning of which includes terms pronounced as letters—is sometimes criticized, but it is the term's original meaning and is in common use. Dictionary and st ...
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Information Repository
In information technology, an information repository or simply a repository is "a central place in which an aggregation of data is kept and maintained in an organized way, usually in computer storage." It "may be just the aggregation of data itself into some accessible place of storage or it may also imply some ability to selectively extract data." Universal digital library The concept of a universal digital library was described as "within reach" by a 2012 '' European Union Copyright Directiveurl=https://www.latimes.com/opinion/la-xpm-2012-may-01-la-oe-samuelson-google-books-and-copyright-20120501-story.html , title=A universal digital library is within reach , author=Pamela Samuelson , date=May 1, 2012 which told about Google's attempts to "mass-digitize" what are termed "orphan works" (i.e. out-of-print copyrighted works. The U.S. Copyright Office and the European Union Copyrigh law have been working on this. Google has reached agreements in France which "lets the pub ...
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