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Ecological Accounting
Environmental accounting is a subset of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other ob ... proper, its target being to incorporate both economic and environmental information. It can be conducted at the corporate level or at the level of a national economy through the System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA)System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Central Framework – final, official publication 2012, UN, EC, IMF, OECD and World Ban"System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting" U ..., a satellite system to the National Accounts of Countries (among other things, the National Accounts produce the estimates of gross domestic product otherwise known as GDP). Environmental accounting is ...
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Accountancy
Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the context and discipline. In natural science Natur ..., processing, and communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ... of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...es and corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a ...
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Ecological Economics
Ecological economics, bioeconomics, ecolonomy, eco-economics, or ecol-econ is both a transdisciplinary Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic Holism (from Ancient Greek, Greek ''holos'' "all, whole, entire") is the idea that various systems (e.g. physical, biological, soci ... and an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, ... field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined ... of human economies An eco ...
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting
Greenhouse gas inventories are emission inventory, emission inventories of greenhouse gas emissions that are developed for a variety of reasons. Scientists use inventories of natural and human impact on the environment, anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions as tools when developing atmospheric models. Policy makers use inventories to develop strategies and policies for emissions reductions and to track the progress of those policies. Regulatory agencies and corporations also rely on inventories to establish compliance records with allowable emission rates. Businesses, the public, and other interest groups use inventories to better understand the sources and trends in emissions. Unlike some other air emission inventories, greenhouse gas inventories include not only emissions from source categories, but also removals by carbon sinks. These removals are typically referred to as carbon sequestration. Greenhouse gas inventories typically use Global warming potential (GWP) values ...
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Full Cost Accounting
Environmental full-cost accounting (EFCA) is a method of cost accounting Cost accounting is defined as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the cost of manufacturing goods and performing services in the aggregate and in detail. It includes methods for recognizing, classifying, all ... that traces direct costs Direct costs are costs which are directly accountable to a cost object A cost object is a term used primarily in cost accounting Cost accounting is defined as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the cost ... and allocates indirect costs Indirect costs are costs that are not directly accountable to a cost object A cost object is a term used primarily in cost accounting Cost accounting is defined as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the c ... by collecting and presenting information about the possible environmental, social and economical costs and be ...
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Fiscal Environmentalism
Fiscal usually refers to public finance, government finance. In this context, it may refer to: Economics * Fiscal policy, use of government expenditure to influence economic development * Fiscal policy debate * Fiscal adjustment, a reduction in the government primary budget deficit * Fiscal agent, a proxy that manages fiscal matters on behalf of another party * Fiscal illusion, a public choice theory of government expenditure * Fiscal space, the flexibility of a government in its spending choices * Fiscal sponsorship, when non-profit organizations offer their legal and tax-exempt status to groups * Fiscal sustainability, the ability of a government to sustain its current spending * Fiscal transparency, publication of information on how governments manage public resources * Fiscal year, reporting periods for firms and other agencies Places * Fiscal Parish, in Portugal * Fiscal, Spain municipality in Huesca, Spain Other * ''Fiscal Studies'', a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journ ...
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Environmental Profit And Loss Account
An environmental profit and loss account (E P&L) is a company's monetary valuation and analysis of its environmental impacts including its business operations and its supply chain from Life-cycle assessment#Cradle-to-gate, cradle-to-gate. An E P&L internalizes externalities and monetizes the cost of business to nature by accounting for the ecosystem services a business depends on to operate in addition to the cost of direct and indirect negative impacts on the environment. The primary purpose of an E P&L is to allow managers and stakeholders to see the magnitude of these impacts and where in the supply chain they occur. The E P&L analysis provides a metric to measure and monitor the footprint of the company's operations and suppliers all the way to the initial raw materials. It is a tool to build awareness of the importance of nature to the sustainability of businesses; enhance visibility across a company's supply chain and deepen understanding to focus sustainability efforts and ...
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Environmental Pricing Reform
Environmental pricing reform (EPR) is the process of adjusting market prices to include environmental costs and benefits. An externality (a type of market failure) exists where a market price omits environmental costs and/or benefits. In such a situation, rational (self-interested) economic decisions can lead to environmental harm, as well as to economic distortions and inefficiencies. Environmental pricing reform can be economy-wide, or more focused (e.g. specific to a sector (such as electric power generation or mining) or a particular environmental issue (such as climate change). A "market-based instruments, market-based instrument" or "economic instrument for environmental protection" is an individual instance of Environmental Pricing Reform. Examples include green tax-shifting (ecotaxation), tradeable pollution permits, or the creation of markets for ecological services. A similar term, "ecological fiscal reform" differs in more narrowly dealing with fiscal (i.e. tax) poli ...
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Environmental Management System
An environmental management system (EMS) is "a system and database which integrates procedures and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal and external stakeholders of a firm".Sroufe, Robert. "Effects of Environmental Management Systems on Environmental Management Practices and Operations." Production and Operations Management. 12-3 (2003): 416–431. The most widely used standard on which an EMS is based is International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001.Melnyk, Steven A., Robert P. Sroufe, and Roger Calantone. "Assessing the Impact of Environmental Management Systems on Corporate and Environmental Performance." Alternatives include the EMAS. An environmental management information system (EMIS) or Environmental Data Management System (EDMS) is an information technology solution for tracking environmental dataEnvironmental data is that which is based on the measurement ...
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Environmental Monitoring
Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterize and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessment Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impact asses ...s, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the natural environment The natural environment or natural world encompasses all and non-living things occurring , meaning in this case not . The term is most often applied to the or some parts of Earth. This environment encompasses the interaction of all living , .... All monitoring strategies and programs have reasons and justifications which are often designed to establish the current status of an ...
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Environmental Finance
Environmental finance is a field within financial services, finance that employs market-based environmental policy instruments to improve the ecological impact of investment strategies. The primary objective of environmental finance is to regress the negative impacts of climate change through pricing and trading schemes. The field of environmental finance was established in response to the poor management of economic crises by government bodies globally. Environmental finance aims to reallocate a businesses resources to improve the sustainability of investments whilst also retaining profit margins. History In 1992, Richard L. Sandor proposed a new course outlining emission markets at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, that would later be known as the course, ''Environmental Finance''. Sandor anticipated a social shift in perspectives on the effects of global warming and wanted to be on the frontier of new research. Prior to this in 1990, Sandor had been involved ...
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Environmental Enterprise
An environmental enterprise is an environmentally friendly/compatible business. Specifically, an environmental enterprise is a business that produces value in the same manner which an ecosystem does, neither producing waste nor consuming unsustainable resources. In addition, an environmental enterprise rather finds alternative ways to produce one's products instead of taking advantage of animals for the sake of human profits. To be closer to the goal of being an environmentally friendly company, some environmental enterprises invest their money to develop or improve their technologies which are also environmentally friendly. In addition, environmental enterprises usually try to reduce global warming, so some companies use materials that are environmentally friendly to build their stores. They also set in place regulations that are environmentally friendly. All these efforts of the environmental enterprises can bring positive effects both for nature and people. The concept is roote ...
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Environmental Economics
Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ... concerned with environmental issues Environmental issues are harmful Human impact on the environment, effects of human activity on the biophysical environment. Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on the individual, organizational or governme .... It has become a widely studied subject due to growing environmental concerns in the twenty-first century. Environmental economics "undertakes theoretical or empirical studies of the economic effects of national or local environmental policies around the world. ... Particular issues include the costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies to deal with air pollution Air pollu ...
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