Dipole
In physics, a dipole () is an electromagnetic phenomenon which occurs in two ways: *An electric dipole deals with the separation of the positive and negative electric charges found in any electromagnetic system. A simple example of this system is a pair of charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign separated by some typically small distance. (A permanent electric dipole is called an electret.) *A magnetic dipole is the closed circulation of an electric current system. A simple example is a single loop of wire with constant current through it. A bar magnet is an example of a magnet with a permanent magnetic dipole moment. Dipoles, whether electric or magnetic, can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric dipole, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges. (To be precise: for the definition of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Molecular Dipole
In physics, a dipole () is an electromagnetic phenomenon which occurs in two ways: *An electric dipole deals with the separation of the positive and negative electric charges found in any electromagnetic system. A simple example of this system is a pair of charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign separated by some typically small distance. (A permanent electric dipole is called an electret.) *A magnetic dipole is the closed circulation of an electric current system. A simple example is a single loop of wire with constant current through it. A bar magnet is an example of a magnet with a permanent magnetic dipole moment. Dipoles, whether electric or magnetic, can be characterized by their dipole moment, a vector quantity. For the simple electric dipole, the electric dipole moment points from the negative charge towards the positive charge, and has a magnitude equal to the strength of each charge times the separation between the charges. (To be precise: for the definition of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electric Dipole Moment
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity. The SI unit for electric dipole moment is the coulombmeter (C⋅m). The debye (D) is another unit of measurement used in atomic physics and chemistry. Theoretically, an electric dipole is defined by the firstorder term of the multipole expansion; it consists of two equal and opposite charges that are infinitesimally close together, although real dipoles have separated charge.Many theorists predict elementary particles can have very tiny electric dipole moments, possibly without separated charge. Such large dipoles make no difference to everyday physics, and have not yet been observed. (See electron electric dipole moment). However, when making measurements at a distance much larger than the charge separation, the dipole gives a good approximation of the actual electric field. The dipole is represented by a vec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electron Electric Dipole Moment
The electron electric dipole moment is an intrinsic property of an electron such that the potential energy is linearly related to the strength of the electric field: :U = \mathbf d_ \cdot \mathbf E. The electron's electric dipole moment (EDM) must be collinear with the direction of the electron's magnetic moment (spin). Within the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, such a dipole is predicted to be nonzero but very small, at most , where ''e'' stands for the elementary charge. The discovery of a substantially larger electron electric dipole moment would imply a violation of both parity invariance and time reversal invariance. Implications for Standard Model and extensions In the Standard Model, the electron EDM arises from the CPviolating components of the CKM matrix. The moment is very small because the CP violation involves quarks, not electrons directly, so it can only arise by quantum processes where virtual quarks are created, interact with the electron, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Magnetic Field
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials. A moving charge in a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to its own velocity and to the magnetic field. A permanent magnet's magnetic field pulls on ferromagnetic materials such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets. In addition, a nonuniform magnetic field exerts minuscule forces on "nonmagnetic" materials by three other magnetic effects: paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and antiferromagnetism, although these forces are usually so small they can only be detected by laboratory equipment. Magnetic fields surround magnetized materials, and are created by electric currents such as those used in electromagnets, and by electric fields varying in time. Since both strength and direction of a magnetic field may vary with location, it is described mathematically by a function assigning a vector to each point of space, ca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Magnetic Dipole Moment
In electromagnetism, the magnetic moment is the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field. Examples of objects that have magnetic moments include loops of electric current (such as electromagnets), permanent magnets, elementary particles (such as electrons), various molecules, and many astronomical objects (such as many planets, some moons, stars, etc). More precisely, the term ''magnetic moment'' normally refers to a system's magnetic dipole moment, the component of the magnetic moment that can be represented by an equivalent magnetic dipole: a magnetic north and south pole separated by a very small distance. The magnetic dipole component is sufficient for small enough magnets or for large enough distances. Higherorder terms (such as the magnetic quadrupole moment) may be needed in addition to the dipole moment for extended objects. The magnetic dipole moment of an object is readily defined in terms of the torque that the objec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bar Magnet
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, steel, nickel, cobalt, etc. and attracts or repels other magnets. A permanent magnet is an object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. An everyday example is a refrigerator magnet used to hold notes on a refrigerator door. Materials that can be magnetized, which are also the ones that are strongly attracted to a magnet, are called ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic). These include the elements iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys, some alloys of rareearth metals, and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone. Although ferromagnetic (and ferrimagnetic) materials are the only ones attracted to a magnet strongly enough to be commonly considered magnetic, all other substances respond w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Multipole Expansion
A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles used in the spherical coordinate system (the polar and azimuthal angles) for threedimensional Euclidean space, \R^3. Similarly to Taylor series, multipole expansions are useful because oftentimes only the first few terms are needed to provide a good approximation of the original function. The function being expanded may be real or complexvalued and is defined either on \R^3, or less often on \R^n for some other Multipole expansions are used frequently in the study of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, where the fields at distant points are given in terms of sources in a small region. The multipole expansion with angles is often combined with an expansion in radius. Such a combination gives an expansion describing a function throughout threedimensional space. The multipole expansion is expressed as a sum of terms with progressively finer angular featur ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Ammonia
Ammonia is an inorganic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula . A stable binary hydride, and the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a distinct pungent smell. Biologically, it is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to 45% of the world's food and fertilizers. Around 70% of ammonia is used to make fertilisers in various forms and composition, such as urea and Diammonium phosphate. Ammonia in pure form is also applied directly into the soil. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Although common in nature—both terrestrially and in the outer planets of the Solar System—and in wide use, ammonia is both cau ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Magnetic Dipole
In electromagnetism, a magnetic dipole is the limit of either a closed loop of electric current or a pair of poles as the size of the source is reduced to zero while keeping the magnetic moment constant. It is a magnetic analogue of the electric dipole, but the analogy is not perfect. In particular, a true magnetic monopole, the magnetic analogue of an electric charge, has never been observed in nature. However, magnetic monopole quasiparticles have been observed as emergent properties of certain condensed matter systems. Moreover, one form of magnetic dipole moment is associated with a fundamental quantum property—the spin of elementary particles. Because magnetic monopoles do not exist, the magnetic field at a large distance from any static magnetic source looks like the field of a dipole with the same dipole moment. For higherorder sources (e.g. quadrupoles) with no dipole moment, their field decays towards zero with distance faster than a dipole field does. External magn ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quadrupole
A quadrupole or quadrapole is one of a sequence of configurations of things like electric charge or current, or gravitational mass that can exist in ideal form, but it is usually just part of a multipole expansion of a more complex structure reflecting various orders of complexity. Mathematical definition The quadrupole moment tensor ''Q'' is a ranktwo tensor—3×3 matrix. There are several definitions, but it is normally stated in the traceless form (i.e. Q_ + Q_ + Q_ = 0). The quadrupole moment tensor has thus nine components, but because of transposition symmetry and zerotrace property, in this form only five of these are independent. For a discrete system of \ell point charges or masses in the case of a gravitational quadrupole, each with charge q_\ell, or mass m_\ell, and position \vec_\ell = \left(r_, r_, r_\right) relative to the coordinate system origin, the components of the ''Q'' matrix are defined by: : Q_ = \sum_\ell q_\ell\left(3r_ r_  \left\, \vec_\ell \righ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 