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Dioxygenyl
The dioxygenyl ion, , is a rarely-encountered oxycation in which both oxygen atoms have a formal oxidation state of . It is formally derived from oxygen by the removal of an electron: :O2 → + e− The energy change for this process is called the ionization energy of the oxygen molecule. Relative to most molecules, this ionization energy is very high at 1175 kJ/mol. As a result, the scope of the chemistry of is quite limited, acting mainly as a 1-electron oxidiser. Structure and molecular properties has a bond order of 2.5, and a bond length of 112.3 pm in solid O2 sF6 It is isoelectronic with nitric oxide and is paramagnetic. The bond energy is 625.1 kJ mol−1 and the stretching frequency is 1858 cm−1, both of which are high relative to most of the molecules. Synthesis Neil Bartlett demonstrated that dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate (O2PtF6), containing the dioxygenyl cation, can be prepared at room temperature by direct reaction of oxygen gas (O2) with plati ...
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Dioxygenyl Hexafluoroplatinate
Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate is a compound with formula O2PtF6. It is a hexafluoroplatinate of the unusual dioxygenyl cation, O2+, and is the first known compound containing this cation. It can be produced by the reaction of dioxygen with platinum hexafluoride. The fact that is strong enough to oxidise , whose first ionization potential is 12.2  eV, led Neil Bartlett to correctly surmise that it might be able to oxidise xenon (first ionization potential 12.13 eV). This led to the discovery of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, which proved that the noble gases, previously thought to be inert, are able to form chemical compounds. Preparation Dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate can be synthesized from the elements by the action of a mixture of oxygen and fluorine gas on platinum sponge at 450 °C. It can also be prepared by the reaction of oxygen difluoride () with platinum sponge. At 350 °C, platinum tetrafluoride is produced; above 400 °C, dioxygenyl hexafluor ...
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Oxycation
In chemistry, an oxycation is a polyatomic ion with a positive charge that contains oxygen. Examples * Dioxygenyl ion, * Nitrosonium ion, * Nitronium ion, * Vanadyl ion, VO2+, a very stable oxycation * Uranyl ion, , all natural U6+ occurs in this form * Zirconyl ion, as a tetramer of r(OH)2sup>2+ See category for a bigger list. See also * Oxyanion * List of aqueous ions by element This table lists the ionic species that are most likely to be present, depending on pH, in aqueous solutions of binary salts of metal ions. The existence must be inferred on the basis of indirect evidence provided by modelling with experimental da ... External links * Cations {{Inorganic-compound-stub ...
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Xenon Hexafluoroplatinate
Xenon hexafluoroplatinate is the product of the reaction of platinum hexafluoride with xenon, in an experiment that proved the chemical reactivity of the noble gases. This experiment was performed by Neil Bartlett at the University of British Columbia, who formulated the product as "Xe+ tF6sup>−", although subsequent work suggests that Bartlett's product was probably a salt mixture and did not in fact contain this specific salt. Preparation "Xenon hexafluoroplatinate" is prepared from xenon and platinum hexafluoride (PtF6) as gaseous solutions in SF6. The reactants are combined at 77  K and slowly warmed to allow for a controlled reaction. Structure The material described originally as "xenon hexafluoroplatinate" is probably not Xe+ tF6sup>−. The main problem with this formulation is "Xe+", which would be a radical and would dimerize or abstract a fluorine atom to give XeF+. Thus, Bartlett discovered that Xe undergoes chemical reactions, but the nature and pu ...
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Xenon
Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a dense, colorless, odorless noble gas found in Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, it can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized. Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasing medium, and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps. Xenon is also used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles and as a propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft. Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon ...
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Platinum Tetrafluoride
Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula . In the solid state, the compound features platinum(IV) in octahedral coordination geometry. Preparation The compound was first reported by Henri Moissan by the fluorination of platinum metal in the presence of hydrogen fluoride. A modern synthesis involves thermal decomposition of platinum hexafluoride. Properties Platinum tetrafluoride vapour at 298.15 K consists of individual molecules. The enthalpy of sublimation is 210 kJmol−1. Original analysis of powdered PtF4 suggested a tetrahedral molecular geometry, but later analysis by several methods identified it as octahedral, with four of the six fluorines on each platinum bridging to adjacent platinum centres. Reactions A solution of platinum tetrafluoride in water is coloured reddish brown, but it rapidly decomposes, releasing heat and forming an orange coloured platinum dioxide hydrate precipitate and fluoroplatinic acid. When heated to a red ...
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Rhenium
Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-gray, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. Rhenium has the third-highest melting point and highest boiling point of any stable element at 5869 K. Rhenium resembles manganese and technetium chemically and is mainly obtained as a by-product of the extraction and refinement of molybdenum and copper ores. Rhenium shows in its compounds a wide variety of oxidation states ranging from −1 to +7. Discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke and Otto Berg in 1925, rhenium was the last stable element to be discovered. It was named after the river Rhine in Europe, from which the earliest samples had been obtained and worked commercially. Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzle ...
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Ruthenium
Ruthenium is a chemical element with the symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. Russian-born scientist of Baltic-German ancestry Karl Ernst Claus discovered the element in 1844 at Kazan State University and named ruthenium in honor of Russia. Ruthenium is usually found as a minor component of platinum ores; the annual production has risen from about 19 tonnes in 2009Summary. Ruthenium
platinum.matthey.com, p. 9 (2009)
to some 35.5 tonnes in 2017. Most ruthenium produced is used in wear-resistant electrical contacts and thick-film resistors. A minor application for ruthenium is in platinum

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Niobium
Niobium is a chemical element with chemical symbol Nb (formerly columbium, Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a Mohs hardness rating similar to pure titanium, and it has similar ductility to iron. Niobium oxidizes in Earth's atmosphere very slowly, hence its application in jewelry as a hypoallergenic alternative to nickel. Niobium is often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name "columbium". Its name comes from Greek mythology: Niobe, daughter of Tantalus, the namesake of tantalum. The name reflects the great similarity between the two elements in their physical and chemical properties, which makes them difficult to distinguish. English chemist Charles Hatchett reported a new element similar to tantalum in 1801 and named it columbium. In 1809, English chemist William Hyde Wollaston wrongly concluded that tantalum and columbium were identical. German chemist Heinrich Rose dete ...
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Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from la, aurum) and atomic number 79. This makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. It is a bright, slightly orange-yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal in a pure form. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental ( native state), as nuggets or grains, in rocks, veins, and alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum), naturally alloyed with other metals like copper and palladium, and mineral inclusions such as within pyrite. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium ( gold tellurides). Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid), forming a soluble tetrachloro ...
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Antimony
Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (from la, stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name kohl. The earliest known description of the metal in the West was written in 1540 by Vannoccio Biringuccio. China is the largest producer of antimony and its compounds, with most production coming from the Xikuangshan Mine in Hunan. The industrial methods for refining antimony from stibnite are roasting followed by reduction with carbon, or direct reduction of stibnite with iron. The largest applications for metallic antimony are in alloys with lead and tin, which have improved properties for solders, bullets, and plain bearings. It improves the rigidity of lead-alloy plates in lead–acid batteries. Antimony trioxide is a prominent additive for ...
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Arsenic
Arsenic is a chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form, which has a metallic appearance, is important to industry. The primary use of arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices. It is also a component of the III-V compound semiconductor gallium arsenide. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining with the increasing recognition of the toxicity of arsenic and its compounds. A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites. Trace quantities of arsenic are an essential dietary element in rats, ...
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Proc
Proc may refer to: * Proč, a village in eastern Slovakia * ''Proč?'', a 1987 Czech film * procfs or proc filesystem, a special file system (typically mounted to ) in Unix-like operating systems for accessing process information * Protein C (PROC) * Proc, a term in video game terminology * Procedures or process, in the programming language ALGOL 68 * People's Republic of China, the formal name of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, most populous country, with a Population of China, population exceeding 1.4 billion, slig ... * the official acronym for the Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs {{disambiguation ...
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