Digital Signature
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature, where the prerequisites are satisfied, gives a recipient very high confidence that the message was created by a known sender ( authenticity), and that the message was not altered in transit ( integrity). Digital signatures are a standard element of most cryptographic protocol suites, and are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, contract management software, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, which includes any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature, but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Private Key Signing
Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private", by Dusty Springfield from the 1990 album ''Reputation'' * Private (band), a Denmarkbased band * "Private" (Ryōko Hirosue song), from the 1999 album ''Private'', written and also recorded by Ringo Sheena * "Private" (Vera Blue song), from the 2017 album ''Perennial'' Literature * ''Private'' (novel), 2010 novel by James Patterson * ''Private'' (novel series), youngadult book series launched in 2006 Film and television * ''Private'' (film), 2004 Italian film * ''Private'' (web series), 2009 web series based on the novel series * ''Privates'' (TV series), 2013 BBC One TV series * Private, a penguin character in ''Madagascar'' Other uses * Private (rank), a military rank * ''Privates'' (video game), 2010 video game * Private (rocket), American multistage rocket * Private Media Group, Swedish adult entertainment production and distribution company * ''Private (magazine)'', flagship magazine of the Private Media Grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uruguay
Uruguay (; ), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; while bordering the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. It is part of the Southern Cone region of South America. Uruguay covers an area of approximately and has a population of an estimated 3.4 million, of whom around 2 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. The area that became Uruguay was first inhabited by groups of hunter–gatherers 13,000 years ago. The predominant tribe at the moment of the arrival of Europeans was the Charrúa people, when the Portuguese first established Colónia do Sacramento in 1680; Uruguay was colonized by Europeans late relative to neighboring countries. The Spanish founded Montevideo as a military stronghold in the early 18th centur ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Unary Numeral System
The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: to represent a number ''N'', a symbol representing 1 is repeated ''N'' times. In the unary system, the number 0 (zero) is represented by the empty string, that is, the absence of a symbol. Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ... are represented in unary as 1, 11, 111, 1111, 11111, 111111, ... Unary is a Bijective numeration, bijective numeral system. However, because the value of a digit does not depend on its position, it is not a form of positional notation, and it is unclear whether it would be appropriate to say that it has a Radix, base (or "radix") of 1 (number), 1, as it behaves differently from all other bases. The use of tally marks in counting is an application of the unary numeral system. For example, using the tally mark  (𝍷), the number 3 is represented as . In East Asian cultures, the number 3 is represented as wikt:三#Translingual, 三, a character drawn with th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital Signature
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for verifying the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature, where the prerequisites are satisfied, gives a recipient very high confidence that the message was created by a known sender ( authenticity), and that the message was not altered in transit ( integrity). Digital signatures are a standard element of most cryptographic protocol suites, and are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, contract management software, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, which includes any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature, but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

National Institute Of Standards And Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce whose mission is to promote American innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into physical science laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, engineering, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. From 1901 to 1988, the agency was named the National Bureau of Standards. History Background The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, provided: The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States. Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, granted these powers to the new Con ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital Signature Algorithm
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a publickey cryptosystem and Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures, based on the mathematical concept of modular exponentiation and the discrete logarithm problem. DSA is a variant of the Schnorr and ElGamal signature schemes. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) proposed DSA for use in their Digital Signature Standard (DSS) in 1991, and adopted it as FIPS 186 in 1994. Four revisions to the initial specification have been released. The newest specification isFIPS 1864 from July 2013. DSA is patented but NIST has made this patent available worldwide royaltyfree. A draft version of the specificatioFIPS 1865indicates DSA will no longer be approved for digital signature generation, but may be used to verify signatures generated prior to the implementation date of that standard. Overview The DSA works in the framework of publickey cryptosystems and is based on the algebraic properties o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Uniform Distribution (discrete)
In probability theory and statistics, the discrete uniform distribution is a symmetric probability distribution wherein a finite number of values are equally likely to be observed; every one of ''n'' values has equal probability 1/''n''. Another way of saying "discrete uniform distribution" would be "a known, finite number of outcomes equally likely to happen". A simple example of the discrete uniform distribution is throwing a fair dice. The possible values are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and each time the die is thrown the probability of a given score is 1/6. If two dice are thrown and their values added, the resulting distribution is no longer uniform because not all sums have equal probability. Although it is convenient to describe discrete uniform distributions over integers, such as this, one can also consider discrete uniform distributions over any finite set. For instance, a random permutation is a permutation generated uniformly from the permutations of a given length, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Key Generation
Key generation is the process of generating keys in cryptography. A key is used to encrypt and decrypt whatever data is being encrypted/decrypted. A device or program used to generate keys is called a key generator or keygen. Generation in cryptography Modern cryptographic systems include symmetrickey algorithms (such as DES and AES) and publickey algorithms (such as RSA). Symmetrickey algorithms use a single shared key; keeping data secret requires keeping this key secret. Publickey algorithms use a public key and a private key. The public key is made available to anyone (often by means of a digital certificate). A sender encrypts data with the receiver's public key; only the holder of the private key can decrypt this data. Since publickey algorithms tend to be much slower than symmetrickey algorithms, modern systems such as TLS and SSH use a combination of the two: one party receives the other's public key, and encrypts a small piece of data (either a symmetric k ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bitstring
A bit array (also known as bitmask, bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits. It can be used to implement a simple set data structure. A bit array is effective at exploiting bitlevel parallelism in hardware to perform operations quickly. A typical bit array stores ''kw'' bits, where ''w'' is the number of bits in the unit of storage, such as a byte or word, and ''k'' is some nonnegative integer. If ''w'' does not divide the number of bits to be stored, some space is wasted due to internal fragmentation. Definition A bit array is a mapping from some domain (almost always a range of integers) to values in the set . The values can be interpreted as dark/light, absent/present, locked/unlocked, valid/invalid, et cetera. The point is that there are only two possible values, so they can be stored in one bit. As with other arrays, the access to a single bit can be managed by applying an index to the array. Assuming its size ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Private Key
Publickey cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is the field of cryptographic systems that use pairs of related keys. Each key pair consists of a public key and a corresponding private key. Key pairs are generated with cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems termed oneway functions. Security of publickey cryptography depends on keeping the private key secret; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security. In a publickey encryption system, anyone with a public key can encrypt a message, yielding a ciphertext, but only those who know the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertext to obtain the original message. For example, a journalist can publish the public key of an encryption key pair on a web site so that sources can send secret messages to the news organization in ciphertext. Only the journalist who knows the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertexts to obtain the sources' messages—an eavesdrop ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nonrepudiation
Nonrepudiation refers to a situation where a statement's author cannot successfully dispute its authorship or the validity of an associated contract. The term is often seen in a legal setting when the authenticity of a signature is being challenged. In such an instance, the authenticity is being "repudiated". For example, Mallory buys a cell phone for $100, writes a paper cheque as payment, and signs the cheque with a pen. Later, she finds that she can't afford it, and claims that the cheque is a forgery. The signature guarantees that only Mallory could have signed the cheque, and so Mallory's bank must pay the cheque. This is nonrepudiation; Mallory cannot repudiate the cheque. In practice, penandpaper signatures aren't hard to forge, but digital signatures can be very hard to break. In security In general, ''nonrepudiation'' involves associating actions or changes with a unique individual. For example, a secure area may use a key card access system where nonrepudiatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Asymmetric Key Algorithm
Publickey cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is the field of cryptographic systems that use pairs of related keys. Each key pair consists of a public key and a corresponding private key. Key pairs are generated with cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems termed oneway functions. Security of publickey cryptography depends on keeping the private key secret; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security. In a publickey encryption system, anyone with a public key can encrypt a message, yielding a ciphertext, but only those who know the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertext to obtain the original message. For example, a journalist can publish the public key of an encryption key pair on a web site so that sources can send secret messages to the news organization in ciphertext. Only the journalist who knows the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertexts to obtain the sources' messages—an eavesdropp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 