Diffuse Sky Radiation
Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or particulates in the atmosphere. It is also called sky radiation, the determinative process for changing the colors of the sky. Approximately 23% of direct incident radiation of total sunlight is removed from the direct solar beam by scattering into the atmosphere; of this amount (of incident radiation) about twothirds ultimately reaches the earth as photon diffused skylight radiation. The dominant radiative scattering processes in the atmosphere are Rayleigh scattering and Mie scattering; they are elastic, meaning that a photon of light can be deviated from its path without being absorbed and without changing wavelength. Under an overcast sky, there is no direct sunlight, and all light results from diffused skylight radiation. Proceeding from analyses of the aftermath of the eruption of the Philippines volcano Mount Pinatubo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Rayleigh Sunlight Scattering
Rayleigh may refer to: Science *Rayleigh scattering * Rayleigh–Jeans law *Rayleigh waves * Rayleigh (unit), a unit of photon flux named after the 4th Baron Rayleigh * Rayl, rayl or Rayleigh, two units of specific acoustic impedance and characteristic acoustic impedance, named after the 3rd Baron Rayleigh *Rayleigh criterion in angular resolution *Rayleigh distribution *Rayleigh fading * Rayleigh law on lowfield magnetization *Rayleigh length *Rayleigh number, a dimensionless number for a fluid associated with buoyancy driven flow *Rayleigh quotient *Rayleigh–Ritz method *Plateau–Rayleigh instability explains why a falling stream of fluid breaks up into smaller packets *Rayleigh–Taylor instability an instability of an interface between two fluids Title of nobility *Baron Rayleigh ** Charlotte Mary Gertrude Strutt, 1st Baroness Rayleigh **John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, physicist, winner of a Nobel Prize in 1904 ** Robert John Strutt, 4th Baron Rayleigh, physic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nanometer
330px, Different lengths as in respect to the molecular scale. The nanometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American and British English spelling differences#re, er, American spelling) is a units of measurement, unit of length in the International System of Units (SI), equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre () and to 1000 picometres. One nanometre can be expressed in scientific notation as , and as metres. History The nanometre was formerly known as the millimicrometre – or, more commonly, the millimicron for short – since it is of a micron (micrometre), and was often denoted by the symbol mμ or (more rarely and confusingly, since it logically should refer to a ''millionth'' of a micron) as μμ. Etymology The name combines the SI prefix ''nano'' (from the Ancient Greek , ', "dwarf") with the parent unit name ''metre'' (from Greek , ', "unit of measurement"). ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Diatomic
Diatomic molecules () are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements. If a diatomic molecule consists of two atoms of the same element, such as hydrogen () or oxygen (), then it is said to be homonuclear. Otherwise, if a diatomic molecule consists of two different atoms, such as carbon monoxide () or nitric oxide (), the molecule is said to be heteronuclear. The bond in a homonuclear diatomic molecule is nonpolar. The only chemical elements that form stable homonuclear diatomic molecules at standard temperature and pressure (STP) (or typical laboratory conditions of 1 bar and 25 °C) are the gases hydrogen (), nitrogen (), oxygen (), fluorine (), and chlorine (). The noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon) are also gases at STP, but they are monatomic. The homonuclear diatomic gases and noble gases together are called "elemental gases" or "molecular gases", to distinguish them from other gases that are che ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zenith
The zenith (, ) is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction ( plumb line) opposite to the gravity direction at that location ( nadir). The zenith is the "highest" point on the celestial sphere. Origin The word "zenith" derives from an inaccurate reading of the Arabic expression (), meaning "direction of the head" or "path above the head", by Medieval Latin scribes in the Middle Ages (during the 14th century), possibly through Old Spanish. It was reduced to "samt" ("direction") and miswritten as "senit"/"cenit", the "m" being misread as "ni". Through the Old French "cenith", "zenith" first appeared in the 17th century. Relevance and use The term ''zenith'' sometimes means the highest point, way, or level reached by a celestial body on its daily apparent path around a given point of observation. This sense of the word is often used to describe the position of the Sun ("The sun reached its ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optical Path Length
In optics, optical path length (OPL, denoted ''Λ'' in equations), also known as optical length or optical distance, is the product of the geometric length of the optical path followed by light and the refractive index of homogeneous medium through which a light ray propagates; for inhomogeneous optical media, the product above is generalized as a path integral as part of the ray tracing procedure. A difference in OPL between two paths is often called the optical path difference (OPD). OPL and OPD are important because they determine the phase of the light and governs interference and diffraction of light as it propagates. Formulation In a medium of constant refractive index, ''n'', the OPL for a path of geometrical length ''s'' is just :\mathrm = n s .\, If the refractive index varies along the path, the OPL is given by a line integral :\mathrm = \int_C n \mathrm d s,\quad where ''n'' is the local refractive index as a function of distance along the path ''C''. An el ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Air Mass (astronomy)
In astronomy, air mass or airmass is a measure of the amount of air along the line of sight when observing a star or other celestial source from below Earth's atmosphere ( Green 1992). It is formulated as the integral of air density along the light ray. As it penetrates the atmosphere, light is attenuated by scattering and absorption; the thicker atmosphere through which it passes, the greater the attenuation. Consequently, celestial bodies when nearer the horizon appear less bright than when nearer the zenith. This attenuation, known as atmospheric extinction, is described quantitatively by the Beer–Lambert law. "Air mass" normally indicates ''relative air mass'', the ratio of absolute air masses (as defined above) at oblique incidence relative to that at zenith. So, by definition, the relative air mass at the zenith is 1. Air mass increases as the angle between the source and the zenith increases, reaching a value of approximately 38 at the horizon. Air mass can be less than ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Optical Path
Optical path (OP) is the trajectory that a light ray follows as it propagates through an optical medium. The geometrical opticalpath length or simply geometrical path length (GPD) is the length of a segment in a given OP, i.e., the Euclidean distance integrated along a ray between any two points. The mechanical length of an optical device can be reduced to less than the GPD by using folded optics. The ''optical path length'' in a homogeneous medium is the GPD multiplied by the refractive index of the medium. Factors affecting optical path Path of light in medium, or between two media is affected by the following: * Reflection ** Total internal reflection * Refraction * Dispersion of light * Absorption Simple materials used * Lenses * Prisms * Mirrors * Transparent materials (e.g. optical filters) * Translucent materials (e.g. frosted glass) * Opaque Opacity or opaque may refer to: * Impediments to (especially, visible) light: ** Opacities, absorption coefficients ** Opaci ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Tangent Lines To Circles
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of infinitely close points on the curve. More precisely, a straight line is said to be a tangent of a curve at a point if the line passes through the point on the curve and has slope , where ''f'' is the derivative of ''f''. A similar definition applies to space curves and curves in ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. As it passes through the point where the tangent line and the curve meet, called the point of tangency, the tangent line is "going in the same direction" as the curve, and is thus the best straightline approximation to the curve at that point. The tangent line to a point on a differentiable curve can also be thought of as a ''tangent line approximation'', the graph of the affine function that best approximates the original function at the given point. Similarly, th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sunset
Sunset, also known as sundown, is the daily disappearance of the Sun below the horizon due to Earth's rotation. As viewed from everywhere on Earth (except the North and South poles), the equinox Sun sets due west at the moment of both the spring and autumn equinoxes. As viewed from the Northern Hemisphere, the Sun sets to the northwest (or not at all) in the spring and summer, and to the southwest in the autumn and winter; these seasons are reversed for the Southern Hemisphere. The time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the upper limb of the Sun disappears below the horizon. Near the horizon, atmospheric refraction causes sunlight rays to be distorted to such an extent that geometrically the solar disk is already about one diameter below the horizon when a sunset is observed. Sunset is distinct from twilight, which is divided into three stages. The first one is ''civil twilight'', which begins once the Sun has disappeared below the horizon, and continues ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sunrise
Sunrise (or sunup) is the moment when the upper rim of the Sun appears on the horizon in the morning. The term can also refer to the entire process of the solar disk crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric effects. Terminology Although the Sun appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the ''Earth's'' motion that causes the Sun to appear. The illusion of a moving Sun results from Earth observers being in a rotating reference frame; this apparent motion is so convincing that many cultures had mythologies and religions built around the geocentric model, which prevailed until astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus formulated his heliocentric model in the 16th century. Architect Buckminster Fuller proposed the terms "sunsight" and "sunclipse" to better represent the heliocentric model, though the terms have not entered into common language. Astronomically, sunrise occurs for only an instant: the moment at which the upper limb of the Sun appears tangent to the horiz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Geometric Optics
Geometry (; ) is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a ''geometer''. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts. During the 19th century several discoveries enlarged dramatically the scope of geometry. One of the oldest such discoveries is Carl Friedrich Gauss' ("remarkable theorem") that asserts roughly that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent from any specific embedding in a Euclidean space. This implies that surfaces can be studied ''intrinsically'', that is, as standalone spaces, and has been expanded into the theory of manifolds and Riemannian geometry. Later in the 19th century, it appeared that geometries ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Particle Size
Particle size is a notion introduced for comparing dimensions of solid particles ('' flecks''), liquid particles ('' droplets''), or gaseous particles ('' bubbles''). The notion of particle size applies to particles in colloids, in ecology, in granular material (whether airborne or not), and to particles that form a granular material (see also grain size). Measurement There are several methods for measuring particle size and particle size distribution. Some of them are based on light, other on ultrasound,Dukhin, A. S. and Goetz, P. J. ''Characterization of liquids, nano and micro particulates and porous bodies using Ultrasound'', Elsevier, 2017 or electric field, or gravity, or centrifugation. The use of sieves is a common measurement technique, however this process can be more susceptible to human error and is time consuming. Technology such as dynamic image analysis (DIA) can make particle size distribution analyses much easier. This approach can be seen in instruments l ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 