Degenerate Orbitals
In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system. Conversely, two or more different states of a quantum mechanical system are said to be degenerate if they give the same value of energy upon measurement. The number of different states corresponding to a particular energy level is known as the degree of degeneracy of the level. It is represented mathematically by the Hamiltonian for the system having more than one linearly independent eigenstate with the same energy eigenvalue. When this is the case, energy alone is not enough to characterize what state the system is in, and other quantum numbers are needed to characterize the exact state when distinction is desired. In classical mechanics, this can be understood in terms of different possible trajectories corresponding to the same energy. Degeneracy plays a fundamental role in quantum statistical mechanics. For an particle system in three dimens ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary (macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values ( quantization); objects have characteristics of both particles and waves ( wave–particle duality); and there ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Scalar (physics)
In physics, scalars (or scalar quantities) are physical quantities that are unaffected by changes to a vector space basis (i.e., a coordinate system transformation). Scalars are often accompanied by units of measurement, as in "10 cm". Examples of scalar quantities are mass, distance, charge, volume, time, speed, and the magnitude of physical vectors in general (such as velocity). A change of a vector space basis changes the description of a vector in terms of the basis used but does not change the vector itself, while a scalar has nothing to do with this change. In classical physics, like Newtonian mechanics, rotations and reflections preserve scalars, while in relativity, Lorentz transformations or spacetime translations preserve scalars. The term "scalar" has origin in the multiplication of vectors by a unitless scalar, which is a ''uniform scaling'' transformation. Relationship with the mathematical concept A scalar in physics is also a scalar in mathematics, as an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normalizable Wave Function
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complexvalued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters and (lowercase and capital psi, respectively). The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state. For a given system, the choice of which commuting degrees of freedom to use is not unique, and correspondingly the domain of the wave function is also not unique. For instance, it may be taken to be a function of all the position coordinates of the particles over position space, or the momenta of all the particles over momentum space; the two are related by a Fourie ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bound States
Bound or bounds may refer to: Mathematics * Bound variable * Upper and lower bounds, observed limits of mathematical functions Physics * Bound state, a particle that has a tendency to remain localized in one or more regions of space Geography * Bound Brook (Raritan River), a tributary of the Raritan River in New Jersey *Bound Brook, New Jersey, a borough in Somerset County People * Bound (surname) * Bounds (surname) Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Bound'' (1996 film), an American neonoir film by the Wachowskis * ''Bound'' (2015 film), an American erotic thriller film by Jared Cohn * ''Bound'' (2018 film), a Nigerian romantic drama film by Frank Rajah Arase Television * "Bound" (''Fringe''), an episode of ''Fringe'' * "Bound" (''The Secret Circle''), an episode of ''The Secret Circle'' * "Bound" (''Star Trek: Enterprise''), an episode of ''Star Trek: Enterprise'' Other arts, entertainment, and media * ''Bound'' (video game), a PlayStation 4 game * "Bound", a s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Wave Function
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complexvalued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters and (lowercase and capital psi, respectively). The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state. For a given system, the choice of which commuting degrees of freedom to use is not unique, and correspondingly the domain of the wave function is also not unique. For instance, it may be taken to be a function of all the position coordinates of the particles over position space, or the momenta of all the particles over momentum space; the two are related by a Fourier ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analytical Expression
In mathematics, a closedform expression is a mathematical expression that uses a finite number of standard operations. It may contain constants, variables, certain wellknown operations (e.g., + − × ÷), and functions (e.g., ''n''th root, exponent, logarithm, trigonometric functions, and inverse hyperbolic functions), but usually no limit, differentiation, or integration. The set of operations and functions may vary with author and context. Example: roots of polynomials The solutions of any quadratic equation with complex coefficients can be expressed in closed form in terms of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and square root extraction, each of which is an elementary function. For example, the quadratic equation :ax^2+bx+c=0, is tractable since its solutions can be expressed as a closedform expression, i.e. in terms of elementary functions: :x=\frac. Similarly, solutions of cubic and quartic (third and fourth degree) equations can be ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Orthonormal
In linear algebra, two vectors in an inner product space are orthonormal if they are orthogonal (or perpendicular along a line) unit vectors. A set of vectors form an orthonormal set if all vectors in the set are mutually orthogonal and all of unit length. An orthonormal set which forms a basis is called an orthonormal basis. Intuitive overview The construction of orthogonality of vectors is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of perpendicular vectors to higherdimensional spaces. In the Cartesian plane, two vectors are said to be ''perpendicular'' if the angle between them is 90° (i.e. if they form a right angle). This definition can be formalized in Cartesian space by defining the dot product and specifying that two vectors in the plane are orthogonal if their dot product is zero. Similarly, the construction of the norm of a vector is motivated by a desire to extend the intuitive notion of the length of a vector to higherdimensional spaces. In Cartes ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dimension
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on itfor example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface, such as the boundary of a cylinder or sphere, has a dimension of two (2D) because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on itfor example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. A twodimensional Euclidean space is a twodimensional space on the plane. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is threedimensional (3D) because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces. In classical mechanics, space and time are different categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception of the world is a fourdimensional space but not the one that was f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Subspace
In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear subspace, also known as a vector subspaceThe term ''linear subspace'' is sometimes used for referring to flats and affine subspaces. In the case of vector spaces over the reals, linear subspaces, flats, and affine subspaces are also called ''linear manifolds'' for emphasizing that there are also manifolds. is a vector space that is a subset of some larger vector space. A linear subspace is usually simply called a ''subspace'' when the context serves to distinguish it from other types of subspaces. Definition If ''V'' is a vector space over a field ''K'' and if ''W'' is a subset of ''V'', then ''W'' is a linear subspace of ''V'' if under the operations of ''V'', ''W'' is a vector space over ''K''. Equivalently, a nonempty subset ''W'' is a subspace of ''V'' if, whenever are elements of ''W'' and are elements of ''K'', it follows that is in ''W''. As a corollary, all vector spaces are equipped with at least tw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Kernel (linear Algebra)
In mathematics, the kernel of a linear map, also known as the null space or nullspace, is the linear subspace of the domain of the map which is mapped to the zero vector. That is, given a linear map between two vector spaces and , the kernel of is the vector space of all elements of such that , where denotes the zero vector in , or more symbolically: :\ker(L) = \left\ . Properties The kernel of is a linear subspace of the domain .Linear algebra, as discussed in this article, is a very well established mathematical discipline for which there are many sources. Almost all of the material in this article can be found in , , and Strang's lectures. In the linear map L : V \to W, two elements of have the same image in if and only if their difference lies in the kernel of , that is, L\left(\mathbf_1\right) = L\left(\mathbf_2\right) \quad \text \quad L\left(\mathbf_1\mathbf_2\right) = \mathbf. From this, it follows that the image of is isomorphic to the quotient of by t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 