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Constitution Of Iraq
The Constitution of the Republic of Iraq ( ar, دستور جمهورية العراق) is the fundamental law of Iraq. The first constitution came into force in 1925. The current constitution was adopted on September 18, 2005 by the Transitional National Assembly of Iraq, and confirmed by 2005 Iraqi constitutional referendum, constitutional referendum, held on October 15, 2005. It was published on December 28, 2005 in the ''Official Gazette of Iraq'' (No. 4012), in Arabic original, and thus came into force. Official translation for international use (in English language, English language) was produced in cooperation between Iraqi state authorities and the United Nation's Office for Constitutional Support. Since 2006, several proposals for adoption of various Amendment to the Constitution of Iraq, constitutional amendments were initiated. History Iraq's first constitution, which established a constitutional monarchy, entered into force under the auspices of a British military occup ...
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Iraq
Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact character ..., bordered by Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ... to the north North is a cardinal direction or compass point. North or The North may also refer to: Places * North, South Carolina, a town in the United States * North (London sub region), a sub-region of ...
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Islam
Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...) is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, be ... monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousn ... religion teaching that Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of A ...
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Republic
A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ... in which "supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained through democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ... or a mix of democracy with oligarchy Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between any individual and every ot ...
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Parliamentary
A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ... governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ... of a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ... (or subordinate entity) where the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of go ...
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Representative Democracy
Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of democracy where elected persons represent Represent may refer to: * Represent (Compton's Most Wanted album), ''Represent'' (Compton's Most Wanted album) or the title song, 2000 * Represent (Fat Joe album), ''Represent'' (Fat Joe album), 1993 * ''Represent'', an album by DJ Magic Mike, 1994 ... a group of people, in contrast to direct democracy upright=1.5, A Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 2006, Switzerland">canton_of_Glarus.html" ;"title="Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus">Landsgemeinde, or assembly, of the canton of Glarus, on 7 May 200 .... Nearly all modern Western-style democracies function as some type of representative democracy; for example, the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym fo ...
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Federation
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between indi ... characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ... (federalism Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single politic ...). In a federation, the ...
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Democracy
Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choose governing officials to do so ("representative democracy"). Who is considered part of "the people" and how authority is shared among or delegated by the people has changed over time and at different rates in different countries, but over time more and more of a democratic country's inhabitants have generally been included. Cornerstones of democracy include freedom of assembly, freedom of association, association and freedom of speech, speech, Social exclusion#Social inclusion, inclusiveness and political equality, equality, citizenship, consent of the governed, voting rights, freedom from unwarranted governmental deprivation of the right to life and liberty, and minority rights. The notion of democracy has evolved over time considerably ...
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Iraqi Constitution Ratification Vote, 2005
The electorate of Iraq went to the polls on 15 October 2005 to vote in a referendum on whether or not to ratify the proposed constitution of Iraq. After 10 days of counting votes, the country's electoral commission announced that the constitution had been approved by a wide margin nationwide. A number of critics allege massive irregularities, especially in the crucial province of Nineveh Governorate, Nineveh, which was widely expected to provide the third (and deciding) "no" vote. Background and campaign Article 61 of Iraq's Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period, Interim Constitution, in effect since 28 June 2004, laid down the rules for the approval of the proposed Iraqi constitution, proposed permanent constitution. The proposed constitution would have been approved in the referendum if both a majority of voters nationwide voted "yes" and there were no more than 2 of the country's 18 Governorates of Iraq, governorates where two-thirds of the vot ...
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January 2005 Iraqi Parliamentary Election
Parliamentary elections were held in Iraq on 30 January 2005 to elect the new National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ..., alongside governorate elections and a parliamentary election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ... in Kurdistan Region The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI; ku, ھەرێمی کوردستان, translit=Herêma Kurdistanê, ar, إقليم كردستان), also known as Iraqi Kurdistan, is an autonomous administrative division, autonomous region in Iraq comprising .... The 275-member legislature had been created under th ...
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Constitution Amendment Committee
The Government of Iraq from 2006, government of Iraq has established a committee to consider a proposed amendment to the Constitution of Iraq. Current constitution The current Constitution of Iraq was drafted by a Members of the Iraqi Constitution Drafting Committee, committee of the Iraqi Transitional Government. The agreed text was put to a Iraqi constitution ratification vote, 2005, referendum in October 2005. It was approved by 79% of voters and 15 out of 18 Governorates of Iraq, governorates. Agreement to consider amendments In an agreement prior to the referendum, the largest Sunni Arab majority party, the Iraqi Islamic Party agreed to support a "Yes" vote as long as the first Government of Iraq from 2006, parliament elected under the constitution agreed to consider amendments. This agreement was written into Article 142 of the constitution. Procedure Article 142 of the constitution states that the Council of Representatives shall form a committee from its members "represe ...
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Saleh Al-Mutlaq
Saleh Muhammed al-Mutlaq ( ar, صالح محمد المطلك; born 1 July 1947) is an Iraqi politician who is the head of the Iraqi Front for National Dialogue, the fifth largest political list in Iraq's parliament. From 21 December 2010 to 11 August 2015, he was one of the three deputy prime ministers of Iraq. Early life and education Al-Mutlaq was born in Fallujah into the Jubur, Jubur Tribe on 1 July 1947. He attended school in Habbaniyah, and went on to graduate from the University of Baghdad in 1968. He later completed his PhD at the University of Aberdeen, graduating in 1974. Politics Mutlaq was an active member of the Ba'ath Party, but was expelled in 1977 after criticizing the government and insisting that 5 Shiite men accused of plotting against the state should receive a fair trial. Mutlaq then pursued a successful career in farming, before returning to politics after the 2003 invasion of Iraq, being appointed to the committee tasked with writing a new constitution. Mu ...
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