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Cazy
CAZy is a database of Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZymes). The database contains a classification and associated information about enzymes involved in the synthesis, metabolism, and recognition of complex carbohydrates, i.e. disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. Included in the database are families of glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules. The CAZy database also includes a classification of Auxiliary Activity redox enzymes involved in the breakdown of lignocellulose. CAZy was established in 1999 in order to provide online and constantly updated access to the protein sequence-based family classification of CAZymes, which was originally developed in early 1990s to classify the glycoside hydrolases. New entries are added shortly after they appear in the daily releases of GenBank. The rapid evolution of high-throughput DNA sequencing has resulted i ...
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Carbohydrate-binding Module
In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example glycoside hydrolases). The majority of these domains have carbohydrate-binding activity. Some of these domains are found on cellulosome, cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins. CBMs were previously known as cellulose-binding domains. CBMs are classified into numerous families, based on amino acid sequence similarity. There are currently (June 2011) 64 families of CBM in the CAZy database. CBMs of microbe, microbial glycoside hydrolases play a central role in the recycling of Photosynthesis, photosynthetically fixed carbon through their Binding (molecular), binding to specific plant structural polysaccharides. CBMs can recognise both crystalline and amorphous cellulose forms. CBMs are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. Many putative CBMs have been identified by amino acid sequence ...
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Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 1
Glycoside hydrolase family 1 is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ... of glycoside hydrolase 1HNY, a glycoside hydrolase Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalysis, catalyze the hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The ...s. Glycoside hydrolases 1HNY, a glycoside hydrolase Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalysis, catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in polysaccharide, complex sugars. They are extremely common enzymes with roles in nature incl ... are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more che ...
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Glycoside Hydrolase
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula ) is a colorless gas with a density about 53% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide molecules ... the hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord for ... of glycosidic bonds A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate. and ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, dr ... in complex sugars. They are extremely common enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (b ...
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Glycosyltransferase
Glycosyltransferases (GTFs, Gtfs) are enzymes (Enzyme Commission number, EC 2.4) that establish natural glycosidic linkages. They catalyze the transfer of saccharide Moiety (chemistry), moieties from an activated nucleotide sugar (also known as the "glycosyl donor") to a nucleophilic glycosyl acceptor molecule, the nucleophile of which can be oxygen- carbon-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-based. The result of glycosyl transfer can be a disaccharide, carbohydrate, glycoside, oligosaccharide, or a polysaccharide. Some glycosyltransferases catalyse transfer to inorganic phosphate or water. Glycosyl transfer can also occur to protein residues, usually to tyrosine, serine, or threonine to give O-linked glycoproteins, or to asparagine to give N-linked glycoproteins. Mannosyl groups may be transferred to tryptophan to generate C-mannosyl tryptophan, which is relatively abundant in eukaryotes. Transferases may also use lipids as an acceptor, forming glycolipids, and even use lipid-linked sugar phos ...
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Database
In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ..., a database is an organized collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ... stored and accessed electronically from a computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These programs enabl .... Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal design and modeling techniques. The datab ...
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TIM Barrel
The TIM barrel, also known as an alpha/beta barrel, is a conserved protein foldA protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic—that is, composed of a common anc ... consisting of eight alpha helices The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy i ... (α-helices) and eight parallel beta strand Beta (, ; uppercase , lowercase , or cursive Cursive (also known as script, among other names) is any style of penmanship Penmanship is the technique of writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the represen ...s (β-strands) that alternate along the peptide backbone. The structure is n ...
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Wiki
A wiki ( ) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a click, keypress set, or screen ... publication collaboratively edited and managed by its own audience directly using a web browser A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is application software Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typical .... A typical wiki contains multiple pages for the subjects or scope of the project and could be either open to the public or limited to use within an organization for maintaining its internal knowledge base A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to information storage, store complex structured data, structured and unstructured information used by a com ...
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Aix-Marseille University
Aix-Marseille University (AMU; french: Aix-Marseille Université; formally incorporated as ''Université d'Aix-Marseille'') is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth Engli ... research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ... located in the region of Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, ..., southern France Southern France, also know ...
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DNA Sequencing
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleic acid sequence A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of bases signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the order of nucleotides Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. They serve as monom ... – the order of nucleotides Nucleotides are organic molecules , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ... in DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral gro .... It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases: adenine Adenine (A, Ade) is a ...
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GenBank
The GenBank sequence database In the field of bioinformatics, a sequence database is a type of biological database that is composed of a large collection of computerized ("Digital data, digital") nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, or other polymer sequences stored on a ... is an open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ..., annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide Nucleotides are organic molecules , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, ... sequences and their protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten ...
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Protein Sequence
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, a ...s in a peptide Peptides (from Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken ... or protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No .... By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of ...
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Lignocellulose
Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass Biomass is plant or animal material used as fuel to produce electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position ...), so called lignocellulosic biomass. It is the most abundantly available raw material on the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ... for the production of biofuels Biofuel is fuel that is produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than by the very slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly (e.g ..., mainly bio-ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alc ...
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