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Caristia
In ancient Rome, the Caristia, also known as the Cara Cognatio, was an official but privately observed holiday on February 22, that celebrated love of family with banqueting and gifts. Families gathered to dine together and offer food and incense to the Lares as their household gods. It was a day of reconciliation when disagreements were to be set aside, but the poet Ovid observes satirically that this could be achieved only by excluding family members who caused trouble. Activities and context The Caristia was one of several days in February that honored family or ancestors. It followed the Parentalia, nine days of remembrance which began on February 13 and concluded with the Feralia on February 21, or in the view of some, the Caristia on the next day. For the Parentalia, families visited the tombs of their ancestors and shared cake and wine both in the form of offerings and as a meal among themselves. The Feralia was a more somber occasion, a Roman festival, public festival of sa ...
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Religion In Ancient Rome
Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy. The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety ''(pietas)'' in maintaining pax deorum, good relations with the gods. The Romans are known for the List of Roman deities, great number of deities they honored, a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists. The presence of Magna Graecia, Greeks on the Italian peninsula from the beginning of the historical period influenced Culture of ancient Rome, Roman culture, introducing some religious practices that became as fundamental as the cult of Apollo. The Romans looked for common ground between their major gods and those of the Greeks (''interpretatio graeca''), adapting ...
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Manes
In ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widel ..., the ''Manes'' (, , ) or ''Di Manes'' are chthonic The word chthonic is derived from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speaker ... deities sometimes thought to represent souls of deceased loved ones. They were associated with the ''Lares Lares ( , ; archaic , singular ''Lar'') were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well ...'', ''Lemures The lemures were shades or spirits ...
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Council Of Tours 567
In the medieval Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ... church there were several Councils of Tours Tours ( , ) is one of the largest cities in the Centre-Val de Loire Centre-Val de Loire (, , ,In isolation, ''Centre'' is pronounced . ; Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) ..., that city being an old seat of Christianity, and considered fairly centrally located in France. Council of Tours 461 Athenius, Bishop of Rennes The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rennes, Dol, and Saint-Malo (Latin: ''Archidioecesis Rhedonensis, Dolensis et Sancti Maclovii''; French language, French: ''Archidiocèse de Rennes, Dol et Saint-Malo''; br, Arc'heskopti Roazhon, Dol ha Sant-Malo ..., took part in t ...
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Paganism
Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestur ... ''pāgānus'' "rural", "rustic", later "civilian") is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ... for people in the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ... who practiced polytheism Polytheism is the worship of ...
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Corpus Christianorum
The Corpus Christianorum (CC) is a major publishing undertaking of the Belgium, Belgian publisher Brepols Publishers devoted to patristic and medieval Latin texts. The principal series are the ''Series Graeca'' (CCSG), ''Series Latina'' (CCSL), and the ''Continuatio Mediævalis'' (CCCM). There is also a smaller section, the ''Series Apocryphorum'' (CCSA), devoted to Apocryphal works, and a collection of autographs, the ''Autographa Medii Ævi'' (CCAMA). The series ''Conciliorum Oecumenicorum Generaliumque Decreta'' (COGD) contains confessional documents from Churches and Ecumenical organisations in the World with start in Nicæa 325 until today. The principal series are seen as successors to Jacques Paul Migne, Migne's Patrologiae. In 1947 Dom Eligius Dekkers, O.S.B. of the Sint-Pietersabdij in Steenbrugge, drew up a plan for editing afresh early Christian texts. His intention was to produce in a short timespan a "Corpus Christianorum", comprising new editions of the writings of C ...
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Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization (cultural), Romanization of Gauls, Gaulish peoples under the rule of the Roman Empire. It was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman culture, Roman culture, language, morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context. The well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization (cultural), Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. ''Interpretatio romana'' offered Roman names for Gaulish religion, Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus, but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul. The Migration Period, barbarian invasions beginning in the late third century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization. The Visigothic Kingdom, Gothic settlement of 418 offered ...
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Eucharist
The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, among other names, is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ... rite A rite is an established, ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be pre ... that is considered a sacrament A sacrament is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ... in most churches, and as an o ...
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Agape Feast
Agape (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ... , ''agapē'') is a Greco-Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ... term referring to unconditional love, "the highest form of love, charity Charity may refer to: Giving * Charitable organization or charity, a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being * Charity (practice), the practice of being benevolent, giving and sharing * Charity (virtu ..." and "the love of God for man and of man for God". The word is not to be confused with philia '' ...
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Love Feast
Love encompasses a range of strong and positive emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a comb ...al and mental states A mental state, or a mental property, is a state of mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical ..., from the most sublime virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ... or good habit, the deepest interpersonal The concept of interpersonal relationship involves social associations, co ...
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Feast Day
The calendar of saints is the traditional Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ... method of organizing a liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that determines when feast days, including celebrations of saints, are to be obs ... by associating each day with one or more saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of Q-D-Š, holiness, likeness, or closeness to God. However, the use of the term ''saint'' depends on the context and Christian denomination, denominatio ...s and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this cont ...
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Polemius Silvius
Polemius Silvius (''fl. ''Floruit'' (), abbreviated fl. (or occasionally flor.), Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communic ...'' 5th century) was the author of an annotated Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century B ... that attempted to integrate the traditional Roman festival cycle with the new Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ... holy days. His calendar, also referred to as a laterculusA la ...
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Chronography Of 354
The ''Chronograph of 354'' (or "Chronography"), also known as the ''Calendar of 354'', is a compilation of chronological and calendrical texts produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus by the calligrapher and manuscript illuminator, illustrator Furius Dionysius Filocalus. The original illuminated manuscript, illustrated manuscript is lost, but several copies have survived. It is the earliest dated codex to have full page illustrations. The term ''Calendar of Filocalus'' is sometimes used to describe the whole collection, and sometimes just the sixth part, which is the Calendar itself. Other versions of the names ("Philocalus", "Codex-Calendar of 354", "Chronography of 354") are occasionally used. The text and illustrations are available online. Amongst other historically significant information, the work contains the earliest reference to the celebration of Christmas as an annual holiday or feast, on , although unique historical dates had been mentione ...
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