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Afferent Nerve
A sensory nerve, or afferent nerve, is a general anatomic term for a nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, spelling differences), is a long, ... which contains predominantly somatic Somatic may refer to: * Somatic (biology), referring to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells ** Somatic cell, a non-gametic cell in a multicellular organism * Somatic nervous system, the portion of the vertebrate nervous syste ... afferent nerve fiber Afferent nerve fibers refer to axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from th ...s. Afferent nerve fibers in a sensory nerve carry sensory information A sense is a biological syste ...
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Nerve
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from ...s) in the peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, .... A nerve transmits electrical impulses. It is the basic unit of the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, wi ...
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Motor Neuron
A motor neuron (or motoneuron or efferent neuron) is a neuron A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in which a monk or re ... whose cell body The soma (pl. ''somas''), perikaryon (pl. ''perikarya''), neurocyton, or cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small room, hut, or cave in ... is located in the motor cortex The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex, also known as the cerebral mantle, is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals. The cerebral cortex mostly consists of t ..., brainstem The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain A brain is an organ Organ may r ...
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Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorder A metabolic disorder is a disorder that negatively alters the body's processing and distribution of macronutrients such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Metabolic disorders can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the no ...s characterized by a high blood sugar Hyperglycemia is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or r ... level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination Frequent urination is the need to urinate Urination is the release of urine Urine is a liquid by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing process or chemical reaction; it is ..., increased thirst and incre ...
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Heart Attacks
A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow Hemodynamics American and British English spelling differences#ae and oe, or haemodynamics are the Fluid dynamics, dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostasis, homeostatic mechanisms of autoregulation, just as hydraul ... decreases or stops to the coronary artery The coronary arteries are the arterial blood vessels of coronary circulationCoronary () may, as shorthand in English, be used to mean: * Coronary circulation, the system of arteries and veins in mammals ** Coronary artery disease Coronary art ... of the heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste ..., causing damage to the heart muscle Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardi ...
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Peripheral Neuropathy
Peripheral neuropathy, often shortened to neuropathy, is a general term describing disease affecting the peripheral nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, spelling differences), is a long, ...s, meaning nerves beyond the brain and spinal cord. Damage to peripheral nerves may impair sensation, movement, gland, or organ function depending on which nerves are affected; in other words, neuropathy affecting motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person ( ..., sensory, or autonomic nerves result in different symptoms. More than one type of nerve may be affected simultaneously. Peripheral neuropathy may ...
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Spinal Nerve
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the corresponding cervical vertebrae, cervical, thoracic vertebrae, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae, lumbar, sacral vertebrae, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, coccygeal regions of the spine. There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves. The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Structure Each spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, formed from the combination of axon, nerve fibers from its Dorsal root of spinal nerve, dorsal and Ventral root of spinal nerve, ventral roots. The dorsal root is the afferent nerve fiber, afferent sensory root and carries sensory information to the brain. The ventral root is the effere ...
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Ventral Root Of Spinal Nerve
In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ... and neurology Neurology (from el, , "string, nerve" and the suffix , "study of") is a branch of dealing with . Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the and s (and their subdivisions, the ..., the ventral root, motor root or anterior root is the efferent motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person ( ... root of a spinal nerve A spinal nerve is a , which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the and the body. In the there ...
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Dorsal Root Ganglion
A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion; also known as a posterior root ganglion) is a cluster of neurons A neuron or nerve cell is an membrane potential#Cell excitability, electrically excitable cell (biology), cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses. It is the main component of nervous tissue in all Anima ... (a ganglion A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. In the somatic nervous system this includes dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia among a few others. In the autonomic nervous system there are both sympath ...) in a dorsal root The dorsal root of spinal nerve (or posterior root of spinal nerve or sensory root) is one of two "roots" which emerge from the spinal cord The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of , which extends from the in the to the ... of a spinal nerve A spinal nerve is a , which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals be ...
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Sensory Transduction
In physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ..., sensory transduction is the conversion of a sensory stimulus A stimulus is something that causes a physiological response. It may refer to: *Stimulation Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally. For example, "The press provides stimulation of political discourse." ... from one form to another. Transduction in the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ... typically refers to stimulus-alerting events wherein a physical stimulus is converted into an actio ...
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Nerve Impulse
In physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ..., an action potential (AP) occurs when the membrane potential Membrane potential (also transmembrane potential or membrane voltage) is the difference in electric potential The electric potential (also called the ''electric field potential'', potential drop, the electrostatic potential) is the amount of wo ... of a specific cell location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarization then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarize. Action potentials occur in several types of animal cell Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular bio ...
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Efferent Nerve Fiber
Efferent nerve fibers refer to axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from ...al projections that ''exit'' a particular region; as opposed to afferent projections that ''arrive'' at the region. These terms have a slightly different meaning in the context of the peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, ... (PNS) and central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure ...
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Somatic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system (SNS), or voluntary nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves carrying afferent nerve fibers that relay sensation from the body to the central nervous system (CNS). The other nerves in the SNS are motor nerves carrying efferent nerve fibers that relay motor commands from the CNS to stimulate muscle contraction. The ''a-'' of ''afferent'' and the ''e-'' of ''efferent'' correspond to the prefixes ''ad-'' (to, toward) and ''ex-'' (out of). Structure There are 43 segments of nerves in the human body. With each segment, there is a pair of sensory and motor nerves. In the body, 31 segments of nerves are in the spinal cord and 12 are in the brain stem. Besides these, thousands of association nerves are also present in the body. Thus the somatic nervous system consists of two parts: * Spinal nerves: They are mix ...
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