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Warm-blooded
Warm-blooded is an informal term referring to animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ... species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ... which can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment. In particular, homeothermic Homeothermy, homothermy or homoiothermy is thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system ... species maintain a stable body temperature by regulating metabolic proces ...
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Pterosaurs
Pterosaurs (; from Greek ''pteron'' and ''sauros'', meaning "wing lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or Order (biology), order Pterosauria. They existed during most of the Mesozoic: from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous (228 to 66 million years ago). Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved flying and gliding animals, powered flight. Their wings were formed by a membrane of skin, muscle, and other tissue (biology), tissues stretching from the ankles to a dramatically lengthened fourth finger. There were two major types of pterosaurs. Basal pterosaurs (also called 'non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs' or 'rhamphorhynchoids') were smaller animals with fully toothed jaws and, typically, long tails. Their wide wing membranes probably included and connected the hind legs. On the ground, they would have had an awkward sprawling posture, but their joint anatomy and strong claws would have made them effective climbers, and they may have l ...
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Ichthyosaur
Ichthyosaurs (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek was the language of an ... for "fish lizard" – ἰχθύς or ''ichthys'' meaning "fish" and or ''sauros'' meaning "lizard") are large extinct marine reptile (top left) Sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines and of the suborder Cryptodira. The seven existing species of sea turtles are the green sea turtle, loggerhead ...s. Ichthyosaurs belong to the order known as Ichthyosauria or Ichthyopterygia ('fish flippers' – a designation introduced by Sir Richard Owen Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist. Despite being a controversial figure, Owen is generally ...
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Endotherm
An endotherm (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἔνδον ''endon'' "within" and θέρμη ''thermē'' "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat released by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat. Such internally generated heat is mainly an incidental product of the animal's routine metabolism, but under conditions of excessive cold or low activity an endotherm might apply special mechanisms adapted specifically to heat production. Examples include special-function muscular exertion such as shivering, and Uncoupler, uncoupled oxidative metabolism such as within brown adipose tissue. Only birds and mammals are extant universally endothermic groups of animals. Certain Fish#Endothermy, lamnid sharks, tuna and billfishes are also endothermic. In common parlance, endotherms are characterized as "warm-blooded". The opposite of endothermy is ectothermy, although in general, there ...
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Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ... to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different. A thermoconforming organism, by contrast, simply adopts the surrounding temperature as its own body temperature, thus avoiding the need for internal thermoregulation. The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal conditions, maintained far from the ...
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Plesiosaurs
The Plesiosauria (; Ancient Greek, Greek: πλησίος, ''plesios'', meaning "near to" and Sauria, ''sauros'', meaning "lizard") or plesiosaurs are an Order (biology), order or clade of extinct Mesozoic marine reptiles, belonging to the Sauropterygia. Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period (geology), Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 203 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period, thriving until their disappearance due to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 66 million years ago. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution. Plesiosaurs were among the first fossil reptiles discovered. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists realised how distinctive their build was and they were named as a separate order in 1835. The first plesiosaurian genus, the eponymous ''Plesiosaurus'', was named in 1821. Since then, more than a hundred valid species have ...
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Opah
Opahs, also commonly known as moonfish, sunfish (not to be confused with Molidae The Molidae comprise the family of the molas or ocean sunfishes, unusual fish whose bodies come to an end just behind the dorsal fin, dorsal and anal fins, giving them a "half-fish" appearance. They are also the largest of the ray-finned bony fis ...), kingfish, redfin ocean pan, and Jerusalem haddock, are large, colorful, deep-bodied pelagic The pelagic zone consists of the water column A water column is a concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy ... lampriform Lampriformes is an order (biology), order of Actinopterygii, ray-finned fish. Members are collectively called lamprids (which is more properly used for the Opah, Lampridae) or lampriforms, and unite such open-ocean and partially Deep sea, deep-se ... fish Fish are aquatic Aquatic means rela ...
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Dinosaur
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic Geological period, period, between 243 and 233.23 annum, million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record shows that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having Evolution of birds, evolved from earlier Theropoda, theropods during the Late Jurassic Epoch (geology), epoch, and are the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and the extinct non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals ...
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Homeotherm
Homeothermy, homothermy or homoiothermy is thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxo ... that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a sy ... is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
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Homeothermy
Homeothermy, homothermy or homoiothermy is thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxo ... that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence. This internal body temperature Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life. It is a sy ... is often, though not necessarily, higher than the immediate environment (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximatel ...
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Mammals
Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ... , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ... animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...s constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge represen ...
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Birds
Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic ma ...s constituting the class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ... Aves , characterised by feather Feathers are epidermis (zoology), epidermal growths that form a distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on dinosaurs, both Bird, avian (bird) and some non-avian (non-bird) and possibly other archosauromorpha, archosauromorphs. They are conside ...s, toothless beaked jaws, the laying Laying is the act of making equipment level. It usually involves moving equipment in ...
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Thermogenesis
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. It occurs in all warm-blooded animals, and also in a few species of thermogenic plants such as the Eastern skunk cabbage, the Voodoo lily (''Sauromatum venosum''), and the giant water lilies of the genus ''Victoria (plant), Victoria''. The lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe, ''Arceuthobium americanum'', disperses its seeds explosively through thermogenesis.Rolena A.J. deBruyn, Mark Paetkau, Kelly A. Ross, David V. Godfrey & Cynthia Ross Friedman (2015)"Thermogenesis-triggered seed dispersal in dwarf mistletoe" Types Depending on whether or not they are initiated through locomotion and intentional movement of the muscles, thermogenic processes can be classified as one of the following: * Exercise-associated thermogenesis (EAT) * Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating or sports-like exercise. * thermic effect of food, Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) Shiverin ...
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