HOME
*





United States V. Morrison
''United States v. Morrison'', 529 U.S. 598 (2000), is a U.S. Supreme Court decision that held that parts of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 were unconstitutional because they exceeded the powers granted to the US Congress under the Commerce Clause and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. Along with ''United States v. Lopez'' (1995), it was part of a series of Rehnquist Court cases that limited Congress's powers under the Commerce Clause. The case arose from a challenge to a provision of the Violence Against Women Act that provided victims of gender-motivated violence the right to sue their attackers in federal court. In a majority opinion joined by four other justices, Chief Justice William Rehnquist held that the Commerce Clause gave Congress only the power to regulate activities that were directly economic in nature, even if there were indirect economic consequences. Rehnquist also held that the Equal ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Violence Against Women Act Of 1994
The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) is a United States federal law (Title IV of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, ) signed by President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994. The Act provided $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposed automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, and allowed civil redress when prosecutors chose to not prosecute cases. The Act also established the Office on Violence Against Women within the U.S. Department of Justice. The bill was introduced by Representative Jack Brooks (American politician), Jack Brooks (Democratic Party (United States), D-Texas, TX) in 1994 and gained support from a broad coalition of advocacy groups. The Act passed through both houses of the U.S. Congress with bipartisan support in 1994, although the following year House Republican Party (United States), Republicans attempted to cut the Act's funding. In the 2000 U.S. Supreme Court case ''United ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Gun-Free School Zones Act Of 1990
The Gun-Free School Zones Act (GFSZA) is an act of the U.S. Congress prohibiting any unauthorized individual from knowingly possessing a loaded or unsecured firearm at a place that the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone as defined by . The law applies to public, private, and parochial elementary schools and high schools, and to non-private property within feet of them. It provides that the states and their political subdivisions may issue licenses that exempt the licensed individuals from the prohibition. It was first introduced in the U.S. Senate in February 1990 as S. 2070 by Senator Herb Kohl of Wisconsin and then was incorporated into the Crime Control Act of 1990 that was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush. Following a 1995 Supreme Court ruling, United States v. Lopez, which stuck down the original law, the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1990 was amended so prosecution would only occur for crimes involving guns linked to ei ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Gonzalez V
Gonzalez or González may refer to: People * González (surname) Places * González, Cesar, Colombia * González Municipality, Tamaulipas, Mexico * Gonzalez, Florida, United States * González Island, Antarctica * González Anchorage, Antarctica * Juan González, Adjuntas, Puerto Rico * Pedro González, Panama Other * Ernesto Gonzalez, cartoon character in ''Bordertown'' (American TV series) * Gonzalez (band), a British band, and their 1974 album * González Byass, a Spanish winery * USS ''Gonzalez'', a U.S. Navy destroyer See also * * * * * Gonçalves, Portuguese equivalent of Gonzalez * Gonsales, Portuguese variation of Gonzalez * Gonsalves Gonsalves is an English-language variation of the Portuguese surname Goncalves, meaning 'son of Gonzalo'. People named Gonsalves include: Education * Timothy A. Gonsalves (born 1954), Indian academician and entrepreneur * Mary Emily Gonsalve ..., English language variation of Gonçalves * Gonzales (other) * Just ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Enumerated Powers
The enumerated powers (also called expressed powers, explicit powers or delegated powers) of the United States Congress are the powers granted to the federal government of the United States by the United States Constitution. Most of these powers are listed in Article I, Section 8. In summary, Congress may exercise the powers that the Constitution grants it, subject to the individual rights listed in the Bill of Rights. Moreover, the Constitution expresses various other limitations on Congress, such as the one expressed by the Tenth Amendment: "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people." Historically, Congress and the Supreme Court have broadly interpreted the enumerated powers, especially by deriving many implied powers from them. The enumerated powers listed in Article One include both exclusive federal powers, as well as concurrent powers that are shared wi ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Alabama V
Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting board ** Sounding board, of a musical instrument * Cardboard (paper product) * Paperboard * Fiberboard ** Hardboard, a type of fiberboard * Particle board, also known as ''chipboard'' ** Oriented strand board * Printed circuit board, in computing and electronics ** Motherboard, the main printed circuit board of a computer * A reusable writing surface ** Chalkboard ** Whiteboard Recreation * Board game **Chessboard **Checkerboard * Board (bridge), a device used in playing duplicate bridge * Board, colloquial term for the rebound statistic in basketball * Board track racing, a type of motorsport popular in the United States during the 1910s and 1920s * Boards, the wall around a bandy field or ice hockey rink * Boardsports * Diving board (other) Companies * Board International, a Swiss software vendor known for its business intelligence software to ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Seventeenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the direct election of United States senators in each state. The amendment supersedes Article I, Section 3, Clauses 1 and2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures. It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, allowing for state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held. The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and became part of the Constitution on April 8, 1913, on ratification by three-quarters (36) of the state legislatures. Sitting senators were not affected until their existing terms expired. The transition began with two special elections in Georgia and Maryland, then in earnest with the November 1914 election; it was complete on March 4, 1919, when the senators chosen by the November 1918 election took office. Text Background Original co ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Katzenbach V
Katzenbach may refer to: Places * Katzenbach, Germany, a municipality in the Donnersbergkreis district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany * Katzenberg, subdivision in Kapelln, Austria * Katzenbach (Werre), a river of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany * Katzenbach (Neckar), a river of Baden-Württemberg, Germany People * Frank S. Katzenbach (1868–1929), New Jersey Supreme Court justice * Edward L. Katzenbach (1878–1934), New Jersey Attorney General, brother of Frank S. Katzenbach, father of Nicholas Katzenbach * Nicholas Katzenbach (1922–2012), U.S. Attorney General during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration, son of Edward L. Katzenbach * Marie Hilson Katzenbach (1882–1970), American educator, wife of Edward L. Katzenbach * John Katzenbach (born 1950), American novelist, son of Nicholas Katzenbach * Jon Katzenbach, American management consultant and author Supreme Court cases * '' Katzenbach v. McClung'', 1964 case in which the Court held that Congress ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

City Of Boerne V
A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and densely settled place with administratively defined boundaries whose members work primarily on non-agricultural tasks. Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, production of goods, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organisations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process, such as improving efficiency of goods and service distribution. Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, more than half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for g ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Congressional Power Of Enforcement
A Congressional power of enforcement is included in a number of amendments to the United States Constitution. The language "''The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation''" is used, with slight variations, in Amendments XIII, XIV, XV, XIX, XXIII, XXIV, and XXVI. The variations in the pertinent language are as follows: The Thirteenth Amendment leaves out the word "the", the Fourteenth Amendment states "The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article." In addition to the amendments above, the Eighteenth Amendment states "The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." Initial creation and use These provisions made their first appearance in the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, which were adopted during the Reconstruction period primarily to abolish slavery and protect the rights of the newly emanci ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


Civil Rights Act Of 1875
The Civil Rights Act of 1875, sometimes called the Enforcement Act or the Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction era in response to civil rights violations against African Americans. The bill was passed by the 43rd United States Congress and signed into law by United States President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875. The act was designed to "protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", providing for equal treatment in public accommodations and public transportation and prohibiting exclusion from jury service. It was originally drafted by Senator Charles Sumner in 1870, but was not passed until shortly after Sumner's death in 1875. The law was not effectively enforced, partly because President Grant had favored different measures to help him suppress election-related violence against blacks and Republicans in the Southern United States. The Reconstruction era ended with the resolution of the 1876 presidential election, and the Ci ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]  


picture info

Civil Rights Cases
The ''Civil Rights Cases'', 109 U.S. 3 (1883), were a group of five landmark cases in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments did not empower Congress to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals. The holding that the Thirteenth Amendment did not empower the federal government to punish racist acts done by private citizens would be overturned by the Supreme Court in the 1968 case '' Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.'' The Fourteenth Amendment not applying to private entities, however, is still valid precedent to this day. Although the Fourteenth Amendment-related decision has never been overturned, in the 1964 case of ''Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States'', the Supreme Court held that Congress could prohibit racial discrimination by private actors under the Commerce Clause, though that and other loose interpretations of the Clause to expand federal power have been subject to criticism. During Reconstruction, ...
[...More Info...]      
[...Related Items...]     OR:     [Wikipedia]   [Google]   [Baidu]