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UK Company Law
The United Kingdom company law regulates corporations formed under the Companies Act 2006. Also governed by the Insolvency Act 1986, the UK Corporate Governance Code, European Union Directives and court cases, the company is the primary legal vehicle to organise and run business. Tracing their modern history to the late Industrial Revolution, public companies now employ more people and generate more of wealth in the United Kingdom economy than any other form of organisation. The United Kingdom was the first country to draft modern corporation statutes, where through a simple registration procedure any investors could incorporate, limit liability to their commercial creditors in the event of business insolvency, and where management was delegated to a centralised board of directors. An influential model within Europe, the Commonwealth and as an international standard setter, UK law has always given people broad freedom to design the internal company rules, so long as the mandat ...
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London Thames Sunset Panorama - Feb 2008
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom, with a population of just under 9 million. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The City of London, its ancient core and financial centre, was founded by the Romans as ''Londinium'' and retains its medieval boundaries.See also: Independent city § National capitals The City of Westminster, to the west of the City of London, has for centuries hosted the national government and parliament. Since the 19th century, the name "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent, and Hertfordshire, which largely comprises Greater London, governed by the Greater London Authority.The Greater London Authority consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The London Mayor is distinguished from the Lord Mayo ...
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Dividend
A dividend is a distribution of profits by a corporation to its shareholders. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, it is able to pay a portion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Any amount not distributed is taken to be re-invested in the business (called retained earnings). The current year profit as well as the retained earnings of previous years are available for distribution; a corporation is usually prohibited from paying a dividend out of its capital. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash (usually a deposit into a bank account) or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or by share repurchase. In some cases, the distribution may be of assets. The dividend received by a shareholder is income of the shareholder and may be subject to income tax (see dividend tax). The tax treatment of this income varies considerably between jurisdictions. The corporation does not receive a tax dedu ...
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Capital (economics)
In economics, capital goods or capital are "those durable produced goods that are in turn used as productive inputs for further production" of goods and services. At the macroeconomic level, "the nation's capital stock includes buildings, equipment, software, and inventories during a given year." A typical example is the machinery used in factories. Capital can be increased by the use of the factors of production, which however excludes certain durable goods like homes and personal automobiles that are not used in the production of saleable goods and services. Adam Smith defined capital as "that part of man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". In economic models, capital is an input in the production function. The total physical capital at any given moment in time is referred to as the capital stock (not to be confused with the capital stock of a business entity). Capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non ...
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Share (finance)
In financial markets, a share is a unit of equity ownership in the capital stock of a corporation, and can refer to units of mutual funds, limited partnerships, and real estate investment trusts. Share capital refers to all of the shares of an enterprise. The owner of shares in a company is a shareholder (or stockholder) of the corporation. A share is an indivisible unit of capital, expressing the ownership relationship between the company and the shareholder. The denominated value of a share is its face value, and the total of the face value of issued shares represent the capital of a company, which may not reflect the market value of those shares. The income received from the ownership of shares is a dividend. There are different types of shares such as equity shares, preference shares, deferred shares, redeemable shares, bonus shares, right shares, and employee stock option plan shares. Valuation Shares are valued according to the various principles in different marke ...
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Equity (finance)
In finance, equity is ownership of assets that may have debts or other liabilities attached to them. Equity is measured for accounting purposes by subtracting liabilities from the value of the assets. For example, if someone owns a car worth $24,000 and owes $10,000 on the loan used to buy the car, the difference of $14,000 is equity. Equity can apply to a single asset, such as a car or house, or to an entire business. A business that needs to start up or expand its operations can sell its equity in order to raise cash that does not have to be repaid on a set schedule. In government finance or other non-profit settings, equity is known as "net position" or "net assets". Origins The term "equity" describes this type of ownership in English because it was regulated through the system of equity law that developed in England during the Late Middle Ages to meet the growing demands of commercial activity. While the older common law courts dealt with questions of property title, eq ...
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Takeover Code
The Takeover Code, or more formally The City Code on Takeovers and Mergers, is a binding set of rules that apply to listed companies in the United Kingdom, such as those trading on the London Stock Exchange. Many of its provisions are mirrored in the EU Takeover Directive. Contents The code is designed principally to ensure that shareholders are treated fairly and are not denied an opportunity to decide on the merits of a takeover and that shareholders of the same class are afforded equivalent treatment by an offeror. The code also provides an orderly framework within which takeovers are conducted. *Rule 3, who may advise shareholders on offers or approaches *Rule 6, acquisitions requiring offer of a minimum level of consideration *Rule 9, when a mandatory offer is required, and who is responsible to make it *Rule 10, offer can be declared unconditional once the offeror holds over 50% of the voting shares of the offeree *Rule 11, when cash or securities are required as the offer * ...
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London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange in the City of London, England, United Kingdom. , the total market value of all companies trading on LSE was £3.9 trillion. Its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London. Since 2007, it has been part of the London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG, that it also lists ()). The LSE was the most-valued stock exchange in Europe from 2003 when records began till Autumn 2022, when the Paris exchange was briefly larger, until the LSE retook its position as Europe’s largest stock exchange 10 days later. History Coffee House The Royal Exchange had been founded by English financier Thomas Gresham and Sir Richard Clough on the model of the Antwerp Bourse. It was opened by Elizabeth I of England in 1571. During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Exchange due to their rude manners. They had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, notably ...
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Good Faith
In human interactions, good faith ( la, bona fides) is a sincere intention to be fair, open, and honest, regardless of the outcome of the interaction. Some Latin phrases have lost their literal meaning over centuries, but that is not the case with ''bona fides'', which is still widely used and interchangeable with its generally-accepted modern-day English translation of ''good faith''. It is an important concept within law and business. The opposed concepts are bad faith, ''mala fides'' (duplicity) and perfidy (pretense). In contemporary English, the usage of ''bona fides'' is synonymous with credentials and identity. The phrase is sometimes used in job advertisements, and should not be confused with the ''bona fide'' occupational qualifications or the employer's good faith effort, as described below. ''Bona fides'' ''Bona fides'' is a Latin phrase meaning "good faith". Its ablative case is ''bona fide'', meaning "in good faith", which is often used as an adjective to mean ...
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Directors' Duties
Directors' duties are a series of statutory, common law and equitable obligations owed primarily by members of the board of directors to the corporation that employs them. It is a central part of corporate law and corporate governance. Directors' duties are analogous to duties owed by trustees to beneficiaries, and by agents to principals. Among different jurisdictions, a number of similarities between the framework for directors' duties exist. *directors owe duties to the corporation, and not to individual shareholders, employees or creditors outside exceptional circumstances *directors' core duty is to remain loyal to the company, and avoid conflicts of interest *directors are expected to display a high standard of care, skill or diligence *directors are expected to act in good faith to promote the success of the corporation Australia General Law Directors have Fiduciary Duties under general law in Australia. They are: *Duty to act in good faith and not to act contrary t ...
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General Meeting
A general assembly or general meeting is a meeting of all the members of an organization or shareholders of a company. Specific examples of general assembly include: Churches * General Assembly (presbyterian church), the highest court of presbyterian polity **General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, highest court of the Church of Scotland **General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, highest court of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland * General Assembly (Unitarian Universalist Association), annual gathering of Unitarian Universalists of the Unitarian Universalist Association *General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other religious congregations in the United Kingdom * General Ordinary Assembly, advisory body for the Pope in the Catholic Church * World Evangelical Alliance#General Assemblies International organizations * FIA General Assembly, an international motor-racing organization * G ...
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Employees
Employment is a relationship between two parties regulating the provision of paid labour services. Usually based on a contract, one party, the employer, which might be a corporation, a not-for-profit organization, a co-operative, or any other entity, pays the other, the employee, in return for carrying out assigned work. Employees work in return for wages, which can be paid on the basis of an hourly rate, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does, the prevailing conditions of the sector and the bargaining power between the parties. Employees in some sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payments or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits may include health insurance, housing, disability insurance. Employment is typically governed by employment laws, organisation or legal contracts. Employees and employers An employee contributes labour and expertise to an ...
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