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Treaties Entered Into Force In 1995
A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually made by and between sovereign states, but can include international organizations, individuals, business entities, and other legal persons. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. However, only documents that are legally binding on the parties are considered treaties under international law. Treaties vary on the basis of obligations (the extent to which states are bound to the rules), precision (the extent to which the rules are unambiguous), and delegation (the extent to which third parties have authority to interpret, apply and make rules). Treaties are among the earliest manifestations of international relations, with the first known example being a border agreement between the Sumerian city-states of Lagash and Umma around 3100 BC. International agreements were used in so ...
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Moroccan-American Treaty Of Peace And Friendship 01
Moroccan Americans are Americans of Moroccan ancestry. This includes people who have dual Moroccan and United States citizenship. History of immigration Moroccan presence in the United States was rare until the mid-twentieth century. The first North African who came to the current United States was probably Estebanico Al Azemmouri (also called Estevanico), a Muslim Moroccan of Gnawa descent , who participated in Pánfilo de Narváez's ill-fated expedition to colonize Florida and the Gulf Coast in 1527. Only Azemmouri and three of his comrades survived during the eleven year, 5,000 mile journey from Florida to Texas.Se confirma la presencia de musulmanes hispanos en la América precolombina
(in Sp ...
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Good Faith (law)
In contract law, the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing is a general presumption that the parties to a contract will deal with each other honestly, fairly, and in good faith, so as to not destroy the right of the other party or parties to receive the benefits of the contract. It is implied in a number of contract types in order to reinforce the express covenants or promises of the contract. A lawsuit (or a cause of action) based upon the breach of the covenant may arise when one party to the contract attempts to claim the benefit of a technical excuse for breaching the contract, or when he or she uses specific contractual terms in isolation in order to refuse to perform his or her contractual obligations, despite the general circumstances and understandings between the parties. When a court or trier of fact interprets a contract, there is always an "implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing" in every written agreement. History In U.S. law, the legal concept of ...
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Eschatocol
An eschatocol, or closing protocol, is the final section of a legal or public document, which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation; the attestation of those responsible for the document, which may be the author, writer, countersigner, principal parties involved, and witnesses to the enactment or the subscription; or both. It also expresses the context of the documentation of the action described therein, i. e., enunciation of the means of validation and indication of who is responsible to document the act; and the final formulae. Common in European medieval charters, they have been relegated to notarial acts, governmental acts, diplomatic treaties, certificates, and other formal documents. Contents Eschatocols usually contain a: * Clause of corroboration that expresses the specific means by which the document is to be or was validated and guaranteed as to its authenticity, which means may be a: ** Jurat, i. e., the oath of witnesses that the contents of the documen ...
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Minister Of Foreign Affairs
A foreign affairs minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly minister for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations. The formal title of the top official varies between countries. The foreign minister typically reports to the head of government (such as prime minister or president). Difference in titles In some nations, such as India, the foreign minister is referred to as the minister for external affairs; or others, such as Brazil and the states created from the former Soviet Union, call the position the minister of external relations. In the United States, the secretary of state is the member of the Cabinet who handles foreign relations. Other common titles may include minister of foreign relations. In many countries of Latin America, the foreign minister is colloquially called "chancellor" (''canciller'' in the Spanish-speaking countries and ''chanceler'' in the Portuguese-speaking Brazil). Diplomats ...
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Head Of Government
The head of government is the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. In diplomacy, "head of government" is differentiated from "head of state"HEADS OF STATE, HEADS OF GOVERNMENT, MINISTERS FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS
, Protocol and Liaison Service, United Nations (19 October 2012). Retrieved 29 July 2013.
although in some countries, for example the United States, they are the same person. The authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, ...
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Boilerplate Clause
A boilerplate clause is a legal English term that is used in conjunction with contract law. When forming contracts, parties to the contract often use templates or forms with boilerplate clauses ( boilerplate language, used as standard language). Such clauses refers to the standardized clauses in contracts, and they are to be found towards the end of the agreement. Including boilerplate clauses is the process by which parties to the contract may better define their relationship and the will to provide certainty if terms in the contract are ever disputed. Boilerplate clauses are standard contractual terms that are routinely included in many contracts. Some of the most common clause types are listed below: Assignment clause The common law does not permit assignment of the burden of a contract (i.e. contractual obligations) without the consent of other contracting parties. The benefit of a contract (i.e. contractual rights) may be assigned without the consent of the other contracting p ...
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Plenipotentiary
A ''plenipotentiary'' (from the Latin ''plenus'' "full" and ''potens'' "powerful") is a diplomat who has full powers—authorization to sign a treaty or convention on behalf of his or her sovereign. When used as a noun more generally, the word ''plenipotentiary'' can also refer to any person who has full powers. When used an adjective, ''plenipotentiary'' describes something which confers full powers, such as an edict or an assignment. Diplomats Before the era of rapid international transport or essentially instantaneous communication (such as telegraphy in the mid-19th century and then radio), diplomatic mission chiefs were granted full (''plenipotentiary'') powers to represent their government in negotiations with their host nation. Conventionally, any representations made or agreements reached with a plenipotentiary would be recognized and complied with by their government. Historically, the common generic term for high diplomats of the crown or state was ''minister''. It the ...
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Excellency
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder usually retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, and is held only for the duration of that office. Generally people addressed as ''Excellency'' are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, Roman Catholic bishops and high-ranking ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank (e.g., heads of international organizations). Members of royal families generally have distinct addresses (Majesty, Highness, etc.) It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles (such as Mr. President, and so on), both in speech and in writing. In reference to such an official, it takes the form ''His'' or '' ...
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Majesty
Majesty (abbreviated HM for His Majesty or Her Majesty, oral address Your Majesty; from the Latin ''maiestas'', meaning "greatness") is used as a manner of address by many monarchs, usually kings or queens. Where used, the style outranks the style of ''(Imperial/Royal) Highness'', but is inferior to the style of ''Imperial Majesty''. It has cognates in many other languages, especially of Europe. Origin Originally, during the Roman republic, the word ''maiestas'' was the legal term for the supreme status and dignity of the state, to be respected above everything else. This was crucially defined by the existence of a specific case, called '' laesa maiestas'' (in later French and English law, ''lèse-majesté''), consisting of the violation of this supreme status. Various acts such as celebrating a party on a day of public mourning, contempt of the various rites of the state and disloyalty in word or act were punished as crimes against the majesty of the republic. However, late ...
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more (such as the president of the United States, who is also commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces). In a parliamentary system, such as the United Kingdom or India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. However, in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government. Likewise, in some parliamentary systems the head of state is not the head of government, but still has significant powers, for example Morocco. In contrast, a ...
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Gerund
In linguistics, a gerund ( abbreviated ) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages; most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun. In English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiable by an adverb and being able to take a direct object. The term "''-ing'' form" is often used in English to refer to the gerund specifically. Traditional grammar makes a distinction within ''-ing'' forms between present participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern grammars as '' A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language'' and ''The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language''. Traditional use The Latin gerund, in a restricted set of syntactic contexts, denotes the sense of the verb in isolation after certain prepositions, and in certain uses of the genitive, dative, and ablative cases. It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as object. To express such concepts, the construction ...
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Peace Treaty
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties. It is different from an armistice, which is an agreement to stop hostilities; a surrender, in which an army agrees to give up arms; or a ceasefire or truce, in which the parties may agree to temporarily or permanently stop fighting. The art of negotiating a peace treaty in the modern era has been referred to by legal scholar Christine Bell as the , with a peace treaty potentially contributing to the legal framework governing the post conflict period, or . Elements of treaties The content of a treaty usually depends on the nature of the conflict being concluded. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties, international treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. There are many possible issues that may be included in a peace treaty such as the following: * Formal designation of ...
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