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Texture (music)
In music, texture is how the tempo, melodic, and harmonic materials are combined in a musical composition, determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece. The texture is often described in regard to the density, or thickness, and range, or width, between lowest and highest pitches, in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these voices (see Common types below). For example, a thick texture contains many 'layers' of instruments. One of these layers could be a string section or another brass. The thickness also is changed by the amount and the richness of the instruments playing the piece. The thickness varies from light to thick. A piece's texture may be changed by the number and character of parts playing at once, the timbre of the instruments or voices playing these parts and the harmony, tempo, and rhythms used. The types categorized by number and relationship of parts are ...
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Sousa - "Washington Post March," M
Sousa refers to * John Philip Sousa (1854–1932), American composer of marches Sousa also may refer to: People * Sousa (surname), including other Portuguese variants such as Souza, de Sousa, D'Souza, etc. * João Sousa, Portuguese tennis player * Paulo Sousa, Portuguese football manager * Souza (footballer, born 1975), full name José Ivanaldo de Souza, Brazilian football attacking midfielder * Souza (footballer, born 1977), full name Sergio Roberto Pereira de Souza, Brazilian football midfielder * Souza (footballer, born 1979), full name Willamis de Souza Silva, Brazilian former football midfielder and television pundit * Souza (footballer, born 1982), full name Rodrigo de Souza Cardoso, Brazilian football striker * Souza (footballer, born 1988), full name Elierce Barbosa de Souza, Brazilian football defensive midfielder * Sousa (Brazilian footballer), full name Van Basty Sousa e Silva, (born 1994), Brazilian football midfielder Animals * ''Sousa'', genus making up the ...
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Counterpoint
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more musical lines (or voices) which are harmonically interdependent yet independent in rhythm and melodic contour. It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque period. The term originates from the Latin ''punctus contra punctum'' meaning "point against point", i.e. "note against note". In Western pedagogy, counterpoint is taught through a system of species (see below). There are several different forms of counterpoint, including imitative counterpoint and free counterpoint. Imitative counterpoint involves the repetition of a main melodic idea across different vocal parts, with or without variation. Compositions written in free counterpoint often incorporate non-traditional harmonies and chords, chromaticism and dissonance. General principles The term "counterpoint" has bee ...
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Piano Sonata In B Major, D 575 (Schubert)
The Piano Sonata in B major 575 by Franz Schubert is a sonata for solo piano, posthumously published as Op. 147 and given a dedication to Sigismond Thalberg by its publishers. Schubert composed the sonata in August 1817. Movements I. Allegro ma non troppo (B major) Uses a four-key exposition (B major, G major, E major, F-sharp major). II. Andante (E major) III. Scherzo: Allegretto – Trio (G major, D major) IV. Allegro giusto (B major) The work takes approximately 24 minutes to perform. Daniel Coren has noted that the first movement of this sonata is the only such movement in Schubert's sonatas where the recapitulation is an exact transposition of the exposition. Notes References * Tirimo, Martino. ''Schubert: The Complete Piano Sonatas.'' Vienna: Wiener Urtext Edition, 1997. External links * Performance by Seymour Lipkinfrom the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital ...
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Rest (music)
A rest is a musical notation sign that indicates the absence of a sound. Each rest symbol and name corresponds with a particular note value for length, indicating how long the silence should last. Description Rests are intervals of silence in pieces of music, marked by symbols indicating the length of the pause. Each rest symbol and name corresponds with a particular note value, indicating how long the silence should last, generally as a multiplier of a measure or whole note. * The quarter (crotchet) rest (𝄽) may also be found as a form in older music.''History of Music Notation'' (1937) by C. Gorden, p. 93. * The four-measure rest or longa rest are only used in long silent passages which are not divided into bars. * The combination of rests used to mark a pause follows the same rules as for note values.''AB guide to music theory'' by E. Taylor, chapter 13/1, One-bar rests When an entire bar is devoid of notes, a whole (semibreve) rest is used, regardless o ...
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Heterophony
In music, heterophony is a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line. Such a texture can be regarded as a kind of complex monophony in which there is only one basic melody, but realized at the same time in multiple voices, each of which plays the melody differently, either in a different rhythm or tempo, or with various embellishments and elaborations. The term was initially introduced into systematic musicology to denote a subcategory of polyphonic music, though is now regarded as a textural category in its own right. Characteristics Heterophony is often a characteristic feature of non- Western traditional musics—for example Ottoman classical music, Arabic classical music, Japanese Gagaku, the gamelan music of Indonesia, kulintang ensembles of the Philippines, and the traditional music of Thailand. In European traditions, there are also some examples of heterophony. One such example is dissonant heterophony of Dinaric Ganga o ...
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Homorhythm
In music, homorhythm (also homometer) is a texture having a "similarity of rhythm in all parts"Griffiths, Paul (2005). ''The Penguin Companion to Classical Music'', p.375. . or "very similar rhythm" as would be used in simple hymn A hymn is a type of song, and partially synonymous with devotional song, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word ''hymn ... or chorale settings.Randel, Don Michael (2002). ''The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians'', p.305. . Homorhythm is a condition of homophony. All voices sing the same rhythm. This texture results in a homophonic texture, which is a blocked chordal texture. Homorhythmic texture delivers lyrics with clarity and emphasis. Texture in which parts have different rhythms is heterorythmic or heterometric. The term is used for compositions in which all the voice-parts move simultaneously in the sa ...
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If Ye Love Me
"If ye love me" is a four-part motet or anthem by the English composer Thomas Tallis, a setting of a passage from the Gospel of John. First published in 1565 during the reign of Elizabeth I, it is an example of Tudor music and is part of the repertoire of Anglican church music. An early English-language motet, it is frequently performed today, and has been sung at special occasions including a papal visit and a royal wedding. Text The text is taken from William Tyndale's translation of the Bible which was in common use in the Church of England during the English Reformation. It uses verses from the Gospel of John, words spoken by Jesus to his disciples foretelling his own death and promising that God the Father will send to them the Holy Spirit (a "Comforter"): This text was appointed to be the Gospel reading for Whit Sunday in the lectionary of the 1549 Book of Common Prayer, although it is possible that Tallis's composition is earlier than that. Another setting of the sa ...
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Romantic Music
Romantic music is a stylistic movement in Western Classical music associated with the period of the 19th century commonly referred to as the Romantic era (or Romantic period). It is closely related to the broader concept of Romanticism—the intellectual, artistic and literary movement that became prominent in Western culture from approximately 1798 until 1837. Romantic composers sought to create music that was individualistic, emotional, dramatic and often programmatic; reflecting broader trends within the movements of Romantic literature, poetry, art, and philosophy. Romantic music was often ostensibly inspired by (or else sought to evoke) non-musical stimuli, such as nature, literature, poetry, super-natural elements or the fine arts. It included features such as increased chromaticism and moved away from traditional forms. Background The Romantic movement was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in ...
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Classical Music
Classical music generally refers to the art music of the Western world, considered to be distinct from Western folk music or popular music traditions. It is sometimes distinguished as Western classical music, as the term "classical music" also applies to non-Western art music. Classical music is often characterized by formality and complexity in its musical form and harmonic organization, particularly with the use of polyphony. Since at least the ninth century it has been primarily a written tradition, spawning a sophisticated notational system, as well as accompanying literature in analytical, critical, historiographical, musicological and philosophical practices. A foundational component of Western Culture, classical music is frequently seen from the perspective of individual or groups of composers, whose compositions, personalities and beliefs have fundamentally shaped its history. Rooted in the patronage of churches and royal courts in Western Europe, survivi ...
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Homophony
In music, homophony (;, Greek: ὁμόφωνος, ''homóphōnos'', from ὁμός, ''homós'', "same" and φωνή, ''phōnē'', "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony. One melody predominates while the other parts play either single notes or an elaborate accompaniment. This differentiation of roles contrasts with equal-voice polyphony (in which similar lines move with rhythmic and melodic independence to form an even texture) and monophony (in which all parts move in unison or octaves). Historically, homophony and its differentiated roles for parts emerged in tandem with tonality, which gave distinct harmonic functions to the soprano, bass and inner voices. A homophonic texture may be homorhythmic, which means that all parts have the same rhythm. Chorale texture is another variant of homophony. The most common type of homophony is melody-dominated homophony, in which one voice, often th ...
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Martha Goldstein
Martha Goldstein (born Martha Svendsen; June 10, 1919 – February 14, 2014) was an American harpsichordist and pianist, who gave concerts in the United States, North Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. She performed works by George Frideric Handel, Frédéric Chopin, Georg Philipp Telemann, Franz Liszt, Ferruccio Busoni, Johann Sebastian Bach, and others. Biography Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Goldstein was trained at the Peabody Conservatory and the Juilliard School and studied with Audrey Plitt, Eliza Woods, James Friskin and Mieczysław Munz. She taught at the Peabody Conservatory for 20 years and at the Cornish College of the Arts. She also performed as a guest artist with the Soni Ventorum Wind Quintet, wind quintet-in-residence at the University of Washington School of Music since 1968. Many of Goldstein's recordings were first released on LP by Pandora Records, which was founded in 1973 and active for more than ten years. The company went out of business with the ...
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