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Supreme Court Of Spain
The Supreme Court (''Tribunal Supremo, TS'') is the highest court in the Kingdom of Spain. Originally established pursuant to Title V of the Constitution of 1812 and currently regulated by Title VI of the Constitution of 1978, it has original jurisdiction over cases against high-ranking officials of the Kingdom and over cases regarding illegalization of political parties. It also has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all cases. The Court has the power of judicial review, except for the judicial revision on constitutional matters, reserved to the Constitutional Court. As set in the Judiciary Organic Act of 1985, the Court consists of the President of the Supreme Court and of the General Council of the Judiciary, the Vice President of the Supreme Court, the Chairpersons of the Chambers and an undetermined number of Magistrates. Each Magistrate of the Supreme Court is nominated by the General Council of the Judiciary and appointed by the Monarch for a lifetime tenure up to the age ...
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Tribunal Supremo Logotipo
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single judge could describe that judge as "their tribunal". Many governmental bodies that are titled 'tribunals' are so described to emphasize that they are not courts of normal jurisdiction. For example, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was a body specially constituted under international law; in Great Britain, employment tribunals are bodies set up to hear specific employment disputes. In many (but not all) cases, the word ''tribunal'' implies a judicial (or quasi-judicial) body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, to which the normal rules of evidence and procedure may not apply, and whose presiding officers are frequently neither judges nor magistrates. Private judicial bodies are also often styled 'tribunals'. Howeve ...
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Constitutional Court Of Spain
The Constitutional Court ( es|Tribunal Constitucional) is the supreme interpreter of the Spanish Constitution, with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes made by any public body, central, regional, or local in Spain. It is defined in Part IX (sections 159 through 165) of the Constitution of Spain, and further governed by Organic Laws 2/1979 (Law of the Constitutional Court of 3 October 1979), 8/1984, 4/1985, 6/1988, 7/1999 and 1/2000. The court is the "supreme interpreter" of the Constitution, but since the court is not a part of the Spanish Judiciary, the Supreme Court is the highest court for all judicial matters. Powers The Constitutional Court is authorized to rule on the constitutionality of laws, acts, or regulations set forth by the national or the regional parliaments. It also may rule on the constitutionality of international treaties before they are ratified, if requested to do so by the Government, the Congress of Deputies, or the Senate. T ...
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Council Of Ministers (Spain)
The Council of Ministers ( es|Consejo de Ministros) is the main collective decision-making body of the Government of Spain, and it is exclusively composed of the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers and the ministers (22 as of 2020). Junior or deputy ministers such as the Secretaries of State are not members of the Council (although according to the Constitution they could be, if the Government Act included them, a constitutional provision that until today has not been used). The Monarch may also chair the Council when needed on the invitation of the Prime Minister. The ministers are proposed by the Prime Minister and formally appointed by the King. There is no requirement for the Prime Minister nor the ministers to be MPs. The ministers are the heads of a ministerial department and receive the title of "Minister". In addition to the ministers that are the head of a department, there may be ministers without portfolio, who are entrusted responsibility for certain government fu ...
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Judiciary Of Spain
The Judiciary of Spain consists of Courts and Tribunals, composed of judges and magistrates (Justices), who have the power to administer justice in the name of the King of Spain. Law The Spanish legal system is a civil law system based on comprehensive legal codes and laws rooted in Roman law, as opposed to common law, which is based on precedent court rulings. Operation of the Spanish judiciary is regulated by Organic Law 6/1985 of the Judiciary Power, Law 1/2000 of Civil Judgement, Law of September 14 1882 on Criminal Judgement, Law 29/1998 of Administrative Jurisdiction, Royal Legislative Decree 2/1995, which rewrote the Law of Labour Procedure, and Organic Law 2/1989 that regulates Military Criminal Procedure. Constitutional principles The Spanish Constitution guarantees respect for the essential principles necessary for the correct functioning of the judiciary: *Impartiality: to guarantee the assured effective judicial trusteeship to all citizens by the Constitution, ...
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Provinces Of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces ( es|provincias, ; sing. ''provincia'').In other languages of Spain: * Catalan (), sing. ''província''. * Galician (), sing. ''provincia''. * Basque (, sing. ''probintzia''. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta, Melilla and the plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces. Provincial organization The layout of Spain's provinces closely follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one. Historically, the provinces served mainly as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a highly centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the ...
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Congress Of Deputies (Spain)
The Congress of Deputies ( es|link=no|Congreso de los Diputados; eu|Diputatuen Kongresua; ca|Congrés dels Diputats; gl|Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch. The Congress meets in the Palace of the Parliament (') in Madrid. It has 350 members elected by constituencies (matching fifty Spanish provinces and two autonomous cities) by closed list proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. Deputies serve four-year terms. The presiding officer is the President of the Congress of Deputies, who is elected by the members thereof. It is the analogue to a speaker. In the Congress, MPs from the political parties, or groups of parties, form parliamentary groups. Groups must be formed by at least 15 deputies, but a group can also be formed with only five deputies if the parties got at least 5% of the nationwide vote, or 15% of the votes in the constituencies in which they ran. The deputies belonging to parties who cannot ...
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Spanish Senate
The Senate ( es|Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, which along with the Congress of Deputies—the lower chamber—comprises the Parliament of the Kingdom of Spain. The Senate meets in the Palace of the Senate in Madrid. The composition of the Senate is established in Part III of the Spanish Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators, each of whom represents a province, an autonomous city or an autonomous community. Each mainland province, regardless of its population size, is equally represented by four senators; in the insular provinces, the big islands are represented by three senators and the minor islands are represented by a single senator. Likewise, the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla elect two senators each. This direct election results in the election of 208 senators by the citizens. In addition, the regional legislatures also designate their own representatives, one senator for each autonomous community and another for every million person, des ...
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Government Of Spain
gl|Goberno de España eu|Espainiako Gobernua |image = |caption = Logo of the Government of Spain |label1 = Role |data1 = Executive power |label2 = Established |data2 = |label3 = Country |data3 = Kingdom of Spain |label4 = Appointed by |data4 = Monarch |label5 = Main organ |data5 = Council of Ministers |label6 = Responsible to |data6 = Cortes Generales |label7 = Constitution instrument |data7 = Government Act of 1997 |header8 = Cabinet |class8 = navbox-title |label9 = Members |data9 = Sánchez Government |label10 = Prime Minister |data10 = Pedro Sánchez |label11 = Deputy Prime Minister |data11 = Carmen Calvo Poyato |label12 = Number of members |data12 = 23 |header14 = Administration |class14 = navbox-title |label15 = Workinglanguage |data15 = Spanish |label16 = Staff organization |data16 = M ...
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Spanish Law
The Law of Spain is the legislation in force in the Kingdom of Spain, which is understood to mean Spanish territory, Spanish waters, consulates and embassies, and ships flying the Spanish flag in international waters. It is also applicable to the Spanish armed forces worldwide. Spanish law stems from the Spanish people through democratically elected institutions. Equally, part of the legislation comes from the supranational institutions of the European Union, which also enjoy democratic legitimacy. Characteristics Spanish law follows the continental system, which means it is supported principally by the law in the broad sense (laws and regulations) and to a lesser extent by judicial decisions and customs. Likewise, it is a complex law, in which various autonomous community legislation coexists with the national. Constitutional supremacy The supreme Spanish law is the Spanish Constitution of 1978, which regulates the functioning of public bodies and the fundamental rights of the Span ...
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Spanish Judiciary
The Judiciary of Spain consists of Courts and Tribunals, composed of judges and magistrates (Justices), who have the power to administer justice in the name of the King of Spain. Law The Spanish legal system is a civil law system based on comprehensive legal codes and laws rooted in Roman law, as opposed to common law, which is based on precedent court rulings. Operation of the Spanish judiciary is regulated by Organic Law 6/1985 of the Judiciary Power, Law 1/2000 of Civil Judgement, Law of September 14 1882 on Criminal Judgement, Law 29/1998 of Administrative Jurisdiction, Royal Legislative Decree 2/1995, which rewrote the Law of Labour Procedure, and Organic Law 2/1989 that regulates Military Criminal Procedure. Constitutional principles The Spanish Constitution guarantees respect for the essential principles necessary for the correct functioning of the judiciary: *Impartiality: to guarantee the assured effective judicial trusteeship to all citizens by the Constitution, ...
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Audiencia Nacional
The Audiencia Nacional (; en|National Court) is a centralised court in Spain with jurisdiction over all of the Spanish territory. It is specialised in a certain scope of delinquency, having original jurisdiction over major crimes such as those committed against the Crown and its members, terrorism, forgery of currency, credit and debit cards and checks, some trade crimes committed in more than one region and over drug trafficking, food frauds and medical frauds committed in a nationwide level as well as over international crimes which come under the competence of Spanish courts.LOPJ § 65. It has also appellate jurisdiction over the cases of the Criminal Chamber of the National CourtLOPJ § 64. The Audiencia Nacional was created in 1977 at the same time as the Public Order Court (''Tribunal de Orden Público''), an exceptional court created in Francoist Spain, ceased to exist. Most of the rulings of the National Court can ultimately be appealed before the Supreme Court (''Tribunal ...
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Appellate Court
An appellate court, commonly called an ''appeals court'', ''court of appeals'' (American English), ''appeal court'', ''court of appeal'' (British English), ''court of second instance'' or ''second instance court'', is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal. In most jurisdictions, the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which initially hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case; at least one intermediate appellate court; and a supreme court (or court of last resort) which primarily reviews the decisions of the intermediate courts. A jurisdiction's supreme court is that jurisdiction's highest appellate court. Appellate courts nationwide can operate under varying rules. The authority of appellate courts to review the decisions of lower courts varies widely from one jurisdiction to another. In some areas, the appellate court has limited powers of review. Gene ...
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National Police Corps
The National Police Corps ( es|Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP; ; also known simply as National Police, ''Policía Nacional'') is the national civilian police force of Spain. The CNP is mainly responsible for policing urban areas, whilst rural policing is generally the responsibility of the Civil Guard, the Spanish gendarmerie. The CNP operates under the authority of Spain's Ministry of the Interior. They mostly handle criminal investigation, judicial, terrorism and immigration matters. The powers of the National Police Corps varies according to the autonomous communities, Ertzaintza in the Basque Country and Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia are the primary police agencies. In Navarra they share some duties jointly with Policía Foral (Foruzaingoa). History The 1986 organic law unifying the separate uniformed and plainclothes branches of the national police was a major reform that required a considerable period of time to be brought into full effect. The former plainclothes service ...
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Lifetime Tenure
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or decides personally to resign. Some judges and members of upper chambers (e.g., senators for life) have life tenure. The primary goal of life tenure is to insulate the officeholder from external pressures. Certain heads of state, such as monarchs and presidents for life, are also given life tenure. United States federal judges have life tenure once appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. In some cases, life tenure lasts only until a mandatory retirement age. For example, Canadian senators are appointed for life, but are forced to retire at 75. Likewise, many judges, including Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, have life tenure but must retire at 70. Life tenure also exists in var ...
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Monarchy Of Spain
| coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg | coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain | image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg | incumbent = Felipe VI | incumbentsince = 19 June 2014 | his/her = His | heir_presumptive = Leonor, Princess of Asturias | first_monarch = Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon (Catholic Monarchs of Spain) | date = | appointer = Hereditary | residence = Royal Palace of Madrid (official)Palace of Zarzuela (private) | website The Spanish Monarchy The Monarchy of Spain ( es|Monarquía Española), constitutionally referred to as The Crown ( es|La Corona), is a constitutional institution and the highest office of Spain. The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch, his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his dutie ...
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