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Subsidiary Motion
In parliamentary procedure, a motion is a formal proposal by a member of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action. Such motions, and the form they take are specified by the deliberate assembly and/or a pre-agreed volume detailing parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, Newly Revised; The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure; or Lord Critine's '' The ABC of Chairmanship''. Motions are used in conducting business in almost all legislative bodies worldwide, and are used in meetings of many church vestries, corporate boards, and fraternal organizations. Motions can bring new business before the assembly or consist of numerous other proposals to take procedural steps or carry out other actions relating to a pending proposal (such as postponing it to another time) or to the assembly itself (such as taking a recess). In a parliament, it may also be called a ''parliamentary motion'' and may include legislative motions, budgetary motions, suppleme ...
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Parliamentary Procedure
Parliamentary procedure is the accepted rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings of an assembly or organization. Its object is to allow orderly deliberation upon questions of interest to the organization and thus to arrive at the sense or the will of the majority of the assembly upon these questions. Self-governing organizations follow parliamentary procedure to debate and reach group decisions, usually by vote, with the least possible friction. In the United Kingdom, Canada, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other English-speaking countries, parliamentary procedure is often called ''chairmanship'', ''chairing'', the ''law of meetings'', ''procedure at meetings'', the ''conduct of meetings'', or the ''standing orders''. In the United States, it is referred to as ''parliamentary law'', ''parliamentary practice'', ''legislative procedure'', ''rules of order'', or ''Robert's rules of order''. Rules of order consist of rules written by the body itself (o ...
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Standing Rules Of The United States Senate
The Standing Rules of the Senate are the parliamentary procedures adopted by the United States Senate that govern its procedure. The Senate's power to establish rules derives from Article One, Section5 of the United States Constitution: "Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings..." There are currently forty-five rules, with the latest revision adopted on January 24, 2013. The most recent addition of a new rule occurred in 2006, when The Legislative Transparency and Accountability Act of 2006 introduced a 44th rule on earmarks. The stricter rules are often waived by unanimous consent. Outline of rules Quorum The Constitution provides that a majority of the Senate constitutes a quorum to do business. Under the rules and customs of the Senate, a quorum is always assumed to be present unless a quorum call explicitly demonstrates otherwise. Any senator may request a quorum call by "suggesting the absence of a quorum"; a clerk then calls the roll of the Senate and no ...
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Fix The Time To Which To Adjourn
In parliamentary procedure, an adjournment ends a meeting. It could be done using a motion to adjourn. A time for another meeting could be set using the motion to fix the time to which to adjourn. This motion establishes an adjourned meeting. To adjourn to another time or place defines suspended proceedings until a later stated time or place. Law In law, to adjourn means to suspend proceedings to another time or place, or to end them''.'' Parliamentary procedure In deliberative assemblies, an adjournment ends a meeting. Under '' Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'' (RONR), if no time or method has been fixed to reconvene the assembly, the adjournment has the effect of dissolving the body. Motion to adjourn A motion to adjourn is a privileged motion, unless it is qualified in any way (such as "adjourn at 10 p.m."), the time for adjourning is already established, or unless adjournment would dissolve the assembly (in these cases, it is a main motion). The privileged mot ...
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Table (parliamentary)
In parliamentary procedure, the verb to table has the opposite meaning in the United States from that of the rest of the world: *In the United States, to "table" usually means to postpone or suspend consideration of a pending motion. *In the rest of the English-speaking world, to "table" means to begin consideration (or reconsideration) of a proposal. Motions which use the word "table" have specific meanings and functions, depending on the parliamentary authority used. The meaning of "table" also depends on the context in which it is used. Difference between American and British usage Both the American and the British dialects have the expression "to table a topic" as a short way of saying "to lay a topic on the table" and "to make a topic lie on the table", but these have opposite meanings in the different varieties of the languages. The British meaning is based on the idea of parliamentarians gathering around a table with the bill laid upon so that all may point to sections for ...
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Previous Question
In US parliamentary procedure, the previous question (also known as "calling for the question", "calling the question", "close debate", "calling for a vote", "vote now", or other similar forms) is generally used as a motion to end debate on a pending proposal and bring it to an immediate vote. The meaning of this specialized motion has nothing to do with any question previously considered by the assembly. In the United States Senate and Commonwealth parliaments, a motion for "cloture", or "closure", is used instead to end debate. In those bodies, the "previous question" has a different use and is rarely used or not used at all. History The "previous question" was initially used in the English Parliament in 1604. At that time, use of this motion was intended not to end debate, but to suppress the main question for the rest of the session (similar to an objection to the consideration of a question). It could be debated and when put to a vote, an affirmative vote on the previous que ...
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Limit Or Extend Limits Of Debate
Debate in parliamentary procedure refers to discussion on the merits of a pending question; that is, whether it should or should not be agreed to. It is also commonly referred to as "discussion". Purpose When a motion has been made and is before the assembly, the process of debate could help the assembly determine whether to take action on the proposal. ''Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'' (RONR) says, "''Debate'', rightly understood, is an essential element in the making of rational decisions of consequence by intelligent people." One of the distinguishing characteristics of a deliberative assembly is that it is "a group of people, having or assuming freedom to act in concert, meeting to determine, in full and free discussion, courses of action to be taken in the name of the entire group." Limits of debate Speech and time limits Under the rules in ''Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'', the right of members to participate in debate is limited to two ten-minute spee ...
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Postpone To A Certain Time
In parliamentary procedure in the United States, a motion to postpone to a certain time (or postpone definitely or postpone) is used to delay action on a pending question until a different day, meeting, hour or until after a certain event. Then, when that time comes, the consideration of the question is picked up where it was left off when it was postponed. Explanation and use Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), action on a pending question may be postponed to another time. Alternatively, a motion can be postponed until after a specific event has occurred, such as after an officer makes a relevant report. A postponed question becomes an order of the day (a general order or a special order in the order of business) for the time to which it is postponed. Postponing a motion is permitted so long as: *There is a meeting on the date the motion is postponed to. For example, a main motion cannot be postponed to a day where there is no regular meeting or where a special meet ...
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Commit (motion)
A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to a deliberative assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more fully than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and their types of work differ depending on the type of the organization and its needs. A member of a legislature may be delegated a committee assignment, which gives them the right to serve on a certain committee. Purpose A deliberative assembly may form a committee (or "commission") consisting of one or more persons to assist with the work of the assembly. For larger organizations, much work is done in committees. Committees can be a way to formally draw together people of relevant expertise from different parts of an organization who otherwise would not have a good way to share information and coordinate actions. They may ...
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Amend (motion)
In parliamentary procedure, the motion to amend is used to modify another motion. An amendment could itself be amended. A related procedure is filling blanks in a motion. Explanation and use Using Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR), all main motions can be amended, by so called "first-order" amendments. A first-order amendment can be amended, by "second-order" amendments. However, the limit is that a second-order amendment may not be amended, because it would be too complicated. Secondary motions that, by their nature, include a variable element, also may be amended. For example, the motion to postpone may be amended as to the length of the postponement; the motion to limit or extend limits of debate may be amended as to the number or length of speeches or the total time to be consumed; and the motion to commit or refer may be amended as to the details of the committee or the time within which the committee must report. Forms and uses of the motion The motion to am ...
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Postpone Indefinitely
In parliamentary procedure, the motion to postpone indefinitely is a subsidiary motion used to kill a main motion without taking a direct vote on it. This motion does not actually "postpone" it. Explanation and use In '' Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'' (RONR), the effect of the motion, if adopted, is not to "postpone" the main motion, but rather to prevent action on it for the duration of the current session. It can be used when the assembly does not wish to adopt a motion, but explicitly rejecting it would perhaps be embarrassing, such as a motion to endorse a candidate for a political office. The motion to postpone indefinitely is the lowest-ranking of all motions other than the main motion, and therefore it cannot be made while any other subsidiary, privileged or incidental motion is pending. Because debate on the motion to postpone indefinitely may go into the merits of the pending main motion, it may provide members of the assembly with additional opportunities t ...
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Objection To The Consideration Of The Question
__NOTOC__ In parliamentary procedure, an objection to the consideration of a question is a motion that is adopted to prevent an original main motion from coming before the assembly. This motion is different from an objection to a unanimous consent request. Explanation and use If a member feels that an original main motion should not be considered, an objection to the consideration of a question could be made. It is often used to prevent an embarrassing question from being introduced and debated in the assembly. According to ''Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised'' (RONR), this motion is not debatable and requires a two-thirds vote against consideration. This objection may be applied only to an original main motion, that is, a motion that brings a new substantive issue before the assembly. The objection may be raised only before debate has begun on the motion, as the purpose is to completely suppress debate on the motion. According to ''Mason's Manual of Legislative Procedure' ...
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Preamble
A preamble is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy. When applied to the opening paragraphs of a statute, it may recite historical facts pertinent to the subject of the statute. It is distinct from the long title or enacting formula of a law. In parliamentary procedure using Robert's Rules of Order, a preamble consists of "Whereas" clauses that are placed before the resolving clauses in a resolution (formal written motion). However, preambles are not required to be placed in resolutions. According to Robert's Rules of Order, including such background information may not be helpful in passing the resolution. Legal effect While preambles may be regarded as unimportant introductory matter, their words may have effects that may not have been foreseen by their drafters. France In France, the preamble to the constitution of the Fifth Republic of 1958 was considered ancillary and therefore non- ...
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