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Simplified Spelling Board
The Simplified Spelling Board was an American organization created in 1906 to reform the spelling of the English language, making it simpler and easier to learn, and eliminating many of what were considered to be its inconsistencies. The board operated until 1920, the year after the death of its founding benefactor, who had come to criticize the progress and approach of the organization. Founding The Simplified Spelling Board was announced on March 11, 1906, with Andrew Carnegie funding the organization, to be headquartered in New York City. ''The New York Times'' noted that Carnegie was convinced that "English might be made the world language of the future" and an influence leading to universal peace, but that this role was obstructed by its "contradictory and difficult spelling". Carnegie committed $15,000 per year for five years to initiate the organization. Then he provided $25,000 a year and recruited advocates.
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English Language Spelling Reform
For centuries, there have been movements to reform the spelling of the English language. It seeks to change English orthography so that it is more consistent, matches pronunciation better, and follows the alphabetic principle. Common motives for spelling reform include quicker learning, cheaper learning, and making English more useful as an international auxiliary language. Reform proposals vary in terms of the depth of the linguistic changes and by their implementations. In terms of writing systems, most spelling reform proposals are moderate; they use the traditional English alphabet, try to maintain the familiar shapes of words, and try to maintain common conventions (such as silent e). More radical proposals involve adding or removing letters or symbols, or even creating new alphabets. Some reformers prefer a gradual change implemented in stages, while others favor an immediate and total reform for all. Some spelling reform proposals have been adopted partially or tempora ...
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William Torrey Harris
William Torrey Harris (September 10, 1835 – November 5, 1909) was an American educator, philosopher, and lexicographer. He worked for nearly a quarter century in St. Louis, Missouri, where he taught school and served as Superintendent of Schools for twelve years. With Susan Blow, in 1873 he established the first permanent, public kindergarten in the country. He is also known for establishing high school as an integral part of public education. Increasingly interested in Hegelian philosophy, he was cofounder of ''Journal of Speculative Philosophy'' (1867), the first philosophical journal in the US. He also worked with Amos Bronson Alcott's Concord School of Philosophy. In 1889 Harris was appointed as US Commissioner of Education, and served in that role, under four presidents, until 1906. Biography Born in 1835 in North Killingly, Connecticut, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He completed two years at Yale College, then moved West. Beginning at ag ...
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Surprize
Surprise (or, rarely, surprize) may refer to: * Surprise (emotion), a brief emotional state experienced as the result of an unexpected significant event Places * Surprise, Arizona * Surprise, Indiana * Surprise, Nebraska * Surprise, New York * Surprise Valley (other) Arts and entertainment * ''The Surprise'' (Watteau), a c. 1718 painting by Antoine Watteau Film and television * ''Surprise'' (1991 film), a short by Pixar * ''Surprise!'' (film), a 1995 short by Veit Helmer * ''Surprise'' (2015 film), a Chinese film directed by Show Joy * ''The Surprise'' (film), a Dutch film directed by Mike van Diem * "Surprise" (''Buffy the Vampire Slayer''), a television episode * "Surprise!" (''Dexter's Laboratory''), a television episode * "Surprise" (''The 7D''), a television episode * "Surprise" (''Space Ghost Coast to Coast''), an episode of ''Space Ghost Coast to Coast'' * "Surprise!", an episode of ''Dora the Explorer'' * "Surprise!", an episode of ''Arthur'' * � ...
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Brazen
Brazen may refer to: * Made of brass * HMS ''Brazen'', various ships of the British Royal Navy * Brazen class destroyer, consisting of four Royal Navy destroyers * ''Brazen'' (TV series), a British television show * " Brazen (Weep)", a song by Skunk Anansie * Captain Brazen, one of two main characters in the 1706 play ''The Recruiting Officer'' * ''Brazen'' (film), an adaptation of the Nora Roberts Nora Roberts (born Eleanor Marie Robertson on October 10, 1950) is an American author of more than 225 romance novels. She writes as J. D. Robb for the '' in Death'' series and has also written under the pseudonyms Jill March and for publicatio ... novel ''Brazen Virtue'' See also

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American Philological Association
The Society for Classical Studies (SCS), formerly known as the American Philological Association (APA) is a non-profit North American scholarly organization devoted to all aspects of Greek and Roman civilization founded in 1869. It is the preeminent association in the field and publishes a journal, '' Transactions of the American Philological Association'' (TAPA). The APA is currently based at the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. History The APA was inaugurated by William D. Whitney, of Yale, at Poughkeepsie, New York, in 1869 as an outgrowth of the Classical Section of the Oriental Society. Of the 151 inaugural members, just 8 were women, including Alice Robinson Boise Wood, the first woman to study (informally) at the University of Michigan and to graduate with a B.A. from the Old University of Chicago. Originally its members studied a great variety of texts and languages, but as disciplines such as linguistics and modern languages have created their own societies ...
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Phonetic Transcription
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or ''phones'') by means of symbols. The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet. Versus orthography The pronunciation of words in all languages changes over time. However, their written forms ( orthography) are often not modified to take account of such changes, and do not accurately represent the pronunciation. Words borrowed from other languages may retain the spelling from the original language, which may have a different system of correspondences between written symbols and speech sounds. Pronunciation can also vary greatly among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages, such as English and Tibetan, is often irregular and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling. For example, the words ''bough'', ''chough'', ''cough'', ''though'' and ''through ...
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Dime Savings Bank Of Williamsburgh
The Dime Community Bank, originally known as the Dime Savings Bank of Williamsburgh, is a local, FDIC-insured bank headquartered in Hauppauge, NY. Founded in 1864, the bank was originally based in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, and continues to operate with a strong market presence in this area. In 2017, Dime moved its headquarters to Brooklyn Heights. On Monday, February 1, 2021, Bridge Bancorp Inc. (BNB Bank) and Dime Community Bancshares (Dime Community Bank) successfully closed on a merger of equals. The bank headquarters is currently in Hauppauge, NY. History Dime Community Bank first opened in Brooklyn on June 1, 1864. Founded by William Grandy, Dime was established as a mutual savings bank serving the growing immigrant and low-income populations in the area. Dime weathered a series of economic ups and downs as conditions in Williamsburg changed, finally incorporating and becoming a publicly traded company on June 26, 1996. At the same time, Dime ...
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Charles E
Charles is a masculine given name predominantly found in English and French speaking countries. It is from the French form ''Charles'' of the Proto-Germanic name (in runic alphabet) or ''*karilaz'' (in Latin alphabet), whose meaning was "free man". The Old English descendant of this word was '' Ċearl'' or ''Ċeorl'', as the name of King Cearl of Mercia, that disappeared after the Norman conquest of England. The name was notably borne by Charlemagne (Charles the Great), and was at the time Latinized as ''Karolus'' (as in ''Vita Karoli Magni''), later also as '' Carolus''. Some Germanic languages, for example Dutch and German, have retained the word in two separate senses. In the particular case of Dutch, ''Karel'' refers to the given name, whereas the noun ''kerel'' means "a bloke, fellow, man". Etymology The name's etymology is a Common Germanic noun ''*karilaz'' meaning "free man", which survives in English as churl (< Old English ''ċeorl''), which developed its de ...
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Brander Matthews
James Brander Matthews (February 21, 1852 – March 31, 1929) was an American academic, writer and literary critic. He was the first full-time professor of dramatic literature at Columbia University in New York and played a significant role in establishing theater as a subject worthy of formal study by academics. His interests ranged from Shakespeare, Molière, and Ibsen to French boulevard comedies, folk theater, and the new realism of his own time. Early life Matthews born to a wealthy family in New Orleans, grew up in New York City. He attended Columbia College, graduating in 1871. There, he was a member of the Philolexian Society and the fraternity of Delta Psi (St. Anthony Hall). He graduated from Columbia Law School in 1873.Negus, W. H. (1900).Delta Psi". In Maxwell, W. J. (ed.). ''Greek Lettermen of Washington''. New York, New York: The Umbdenstock Publishing Co. pp. 231–234. However, he demonstrated no real interest in law and never really needed to work for a livi ...
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Madison Avenue (Manhattan)
Madison Avenue is a north-south avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States, that carries northbound one-way traffic. It runs from Madison Square (at 23rd Street) to meet the southbound Harlem River Drive at 142nd Street. In doing so, it passes through Midtown, the Upper East Side (including Carnegie Hill), East Harlem, and Harlem. It is named after and arises from Madison Square, which is itself named after James Madison, the fourth President of the United States. Madison Avenue was not part of the original Manhattan street grid established in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, and was carved between Park Avenue (formerly Fourth) and Fifth Avenue in 1836, due to the effort of lawyer and real estate developer Samuel B. Ruggles, who had previously purchased and developed New York's Gramercy Park in 1831, and convinced the authorities to create Lexington Avenue and Irving Place between Fourth Avenue (now Park Avenue South) and Third Avenue i ...
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Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower
The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower (colloquially known as the Met Life Tower and also as the South Building) is a skyscraper occupying a full block in the Flatiron District of Manhattan in New York City. The building is composed of two sections: a tower at the northwest corner of the block, at Madison Avenue and 24th Street, and a shorter east wing occupying the remainder of the block bounded by Madison Avenue, Park Avenue South, 23rd Street, and 24th Street. The South Building, along with the North Building directly across 24th Street, comprises the Metropolitan Home Office Complex, which originally served as the headquarters of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (now publicly known as MetLife). The South Building's tower was designed by the architectural firm of Napoleon LeBrun & Sons and erected between 1905 and 1909. Inspired by St Mark's Campanile, the tower features four clock faces, four bells, and lighted beacons at its top, and was the tallest buil ...
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Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was praised as the "greatest humorist the United States has produced", and William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature". His novels include ''The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'' (1876) and its sequel, ''Adventures of Huckleberry Finn'' (1884), the latter of which has often been called the "Great American Novel". Twain also wrote ''A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court'' (1889) and ''Pudd'nhead Wilson'' (1894), and co-wrote The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873) with Charles Dudley Warner. Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for ''Tom Sawyer'' and ''Huckleberry Finn''. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat ...
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