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Section 51(xxxvii) Of The Australian Constitution
Section 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution of Australia (also called the referral power) is a provision in the Australian Constitution which empowers the Australian Parliament to legislate on matters referred to it by any state. As Australia is a federation, both states and the Commonwealth have legislative power, and the Australian Constitution limits Commonwealth power (see Section 51 and Section 52). Section 51(xxxvii) allows for a degree of flexibility in the allocation of legislative powers. In practice, the referral power has been quite important in allowing the Commonwealth to enact legislation. Uncertainty Regarding the Scope of Section 51(xxxvii) Section 51(xxxvii) grants power regarding: :matters referred to the Parliament of the Commonwealth by the Parliament or Parliaments of any State or States, but so that the law shall extend only to States by whose Parliaments the matter is referred, or which afterwards adopt the law. Uncertain issues concern: *Revocability: whethe ...
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Australian Constitution
The Constitution of Australia (or Australian Constitution) is a constitutional document that is supreme law in Australia. It establishes Australia as a federation under a constitutional monarchy and outlines the structure and powers of the Australian government's three constituent parts, the executive, legislature, and judiciary. The constitution was drafted between 1891 and 1898, through a series of conventions conducted by representatives of the six self-governing British colonies in Australia. The final draft was then approved in a set of referendums from 1898 to 1900. The British government objected to some elements of the final draft, but a slightly modified form was enacted as section 9 of the ''Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900'', an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The act was given royal assent on 9 July 1900, was proclaimed on 17 September 1900, and entered into force on 1 January 1901. The constitution gave the six colonies the status o ...
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High Court Of Australia
The High Court of Australia is Australia's apex court. It exercises original and appellate jurisdiction on matters specified within Australia's Constitution. The High Court was established following passage of the '' Judiciary Act 1903''. It derives its authority from Chapter III of the Australian Constitution, which vests it responsibility for the judicial power of the Commonwealth. Important legal instruments pertaining to the High Court include the ''Judiciary Act 1903'' and the ''High Court of Australia Act 1979''.. Its bench is composed of seven justices, including a Chief Justice, currently Susan Kiefel. Justices of the High Court are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister and are appointed permanently until their mandatory retirement at age 70, unless they retire earlier. The court has resided in Canberra since 1980, following the construction of a purpose-built High Court Building, located in the Parliamentary Triangle and over ...
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Port Arthur Massacre (Australia)
The Port Arthur massacre was a mass shooting that occurred on 28 April 1996 at Port Arthur, a tourist town in the Australian state of Tasmania. The perpetrator, Martin Bryant, killed 35 people and wounded 23 others, the worst massacre in modern Australian history. The attack led to fundamental changes in Australia's gun laws. Two of Bryant's victims were known to him personally and were killed at Seascape, a bed and breakfast property. The majority of his victims were killed in a shooting spree at the Port Arthur Historic Site, a popular tourist destination. Using two semi-automatic rifles, he began his attack at a small café before moving into a nearby gift shop, killing twenty people indiscriminately in a short amount of time. Many others were killed at the site's car park, including several children. After killing its four occupants, Bryant stole a vehicle at the site's tollbooth and drove to a nearby service station, where he killed a woman and abducted her partner. He ...
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Global Financial Crisis
Global means of or referring to a globe and may also refer to: Entertainment * ''Global'' (Paul van Dyk album), 2003 * ''Global'' (Bunji Garlin album), 2007 * ''Global'' (Humanoid album), 1989 * ''Global'' (Todd Rundgren album), 2015 * Bruno J. Global, a character in the anime series ''The Super Dimension Fortress Macross'' Companies and brands Television * Global Television Network, in Canada ** Global BC, on-air brand of CHAN-TV, a television station in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada ** Global Okanagan, on-air brand of CHBC-TV, a television station in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada ** Global Toronto, a television station in Toronto ** Global Edmonton ** Global Calgary ** Global Montreal ** Global Maritimes ** Canwest Global, former parent company of Global Television Network * Global TV (Venezuela), a regional channel in Venezuela Other industries * Global (cutlery), a Japanese brand * Global Aviation Holdings, the parent company of World Airways, Inc., and North ...
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COAG
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) was the primary intergovernmental forum in Australia from 1992 to 2020. Comprising the federal government, the governments of the six states and two mainland territories and the Australian Local Government Association, it managed governmental relations within Australia's federal system within the scope of matters of national importance. On 29 May 2020, Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced that COAG would be replaced by a new structure based on the National Cabinet implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. History COAG grew out of the Premiers' Conferences, which had been held for many decades. These were limited to the premiers of the six states and the Prime Minister. A related organisation is the Loan Council, which coordinates borrowing by the federal and state and territorial governments of Australia. COAG was established in May 1992 after agreement by the then Prime Minister ( Paul Keating), premiers and chief mi ...
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Section 51(vi) Of The Constitution Of Australia
Section 51(vi) of the Australian Constitution, commonly called the defence power, is a subsection of Section 51 of the Australian Constitution that gives the Commonwealth Parliament the right to legislate with respect to the defence of Australia and the control of the defence forces. The High Court has adopted a different approach to the interpretation of the defence power, which emphasises the purpose of the legislation, primarily the defence of Australia, rather than the subject matter. Section 51(vi) and the Australian States The defence power is set out in section 51 of the Constitution as follows:51 The Parliament shall, subject to this Constitution, have power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to: :(vi) the naval and military defence of the Commonwealth and of the several States, and the control of the forces to execute and maintain the laws of the Commonwealth; :(xxxii) the control of railways with respect to transport f ...
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WorkChoices
WorkChoices was the name given to changes made to the federal industrial relations laws in Australia by the Howard Government in 2005, being amendments to the ''Workplace Relations Act 1996'' by the ''Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005'', sometimes referred to as the ''Workplace Relations Amendment Act 2005'', that came into effect on 27 March 2006. In May 2005, Prime Minister John Howard informed the Australian House of Representatives that the federal government intended to reform Australian industrial relations laws by introducing a unified national system. ''WorkChoices'' was ostensibly designed to improve employment levels and national economic performance by dispensing with unfair dismissal laws for companies under a certain size, removing the "no disadvantage test" which had sought to ensure workers were not left disadvantaged by changes in legislation, thereby promoting individual efficiency and requiring workers to submit their certified agreements d ...
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Section 51(xxxv) Of The Constitution Of Australia
Section 51 of the Constitution of Australia enumerates the legislative powers granted to Federal Parliament by the Australian States at Federation. The list contains 39 subsections, each referred to as a 'head of power' under which the parliament is empowered to make laws. The section is not an exhaustive list, as the federal parliament is authorized to enact legislation outside of those topics by certain other sections in the Constitution, such as sections 52 and 128. Australian States may still enact legislation upon the topics in section 51; but Federal law prevails to the extent of any conflict of laws. Powers of the Parliament Federation was intended to address problems caused by having the separate colonies on the one continent. Section 51 therefore encompasses a group of powers (known as heads of power) which reflect what powers the Commonwealth was viewed as needing to solve those problems. The most important heads of power in terms of supporting contemporary Comm ...
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Workplace Relations Act 1996
The ''Workplace Relations Act 1996'' was an Australian law regarding workplace conditions and rights passed by the Howard government after it came into power in 1996. It replaced the previous Labor Government's '' Industrial Relations Act 1988'', and commenced operation on 1 January 1997. In 2005, the Howard government passed the '' Workplace Relations Amendment Act 2005'' which came into effect on 27 March 2006 and substantially amended the original Act, bringing in the '' WorkChoices'' changes to Australian labour law. The Act was repealed on 1 July 2009 by the '' Fair Work Act 2009'' passed by the Rudd Labor Government, and superseded by the '' Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009''. Provisions The Act provided for the continuation of the existing federal award system which provided a minimum set of terms and conditions for employment. It kept the previous Australian Industrial Relations Commission, which continued to determine federal awards but whose determinati ...
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Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is a state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with a land area of , the second most populated state (after New South Wales) with a population of over 6.5 million, and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bordered by New South Wales to the north and South Australia to the west, and is bounded by the Bass Strait to the south (with the exception of a small land border with Tasmania located along Boundary Islet), the Great Australian Bight portion of the Southern Ocean to the southwest, and the Tasman Sea (a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean) to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its temperate coastal and central regions to the Victorian Alps in the northeast and the semi-arid north-west. The majority of the Victorian population is concentrated in the central-south area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, and in particular within the me ...
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1996 In Australia
The following lists events that happened during 1996 in Australia. Incumbents * Monarch – Elizabeth II * Governor-General – Bill Hayden (until 16 February), then Sir William Deane * Prime Minister – Paul Keating (until 11 March), then John Howard **Deputy Prime Minister – Kim Beazley (until 11 March), then Tim Fischer ** Opposition Leader – John Howard (until 11 March), then Kim Beazley * Chief Justice – Sir Gerard Brennan State and Territory Leaders * Premier of New South Wales – Bob Carr ** Opposition Leader – Peter Collins * Premier of Queensland – Wayne Goss (until 19 February), then Rob Borbidge ** Opposition Leader – Rob Borbidge (until 19 February), then Peter Beattie * Premier of South Australia – Dean Brown (until 28 November), then John Olsen ** Opposition Leader – Mike Rann * Premier of Tasmania – Ray Groom (until 18 March), then Tony Rundle ** Opposition Leader – Michael Field * Premier of Victoria – Jeff Kennett ** Op ...
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Australian Securities & Investments Commission
The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) is an independent commission of the Australian Government tasked as the national corporate regulator. ASIC's role is to regulate company and financial services and enforce laws to protect Australian consumers, investors and creditors. ASIC was established on 1 July 1998 following recommendations from the Wallis Inquiry. ASIC's authority and scope are determined by the ''Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001''. ASIC, which reports to the Treasurer, is responsible for the administering the following legislation: * '' Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001'' (ASIC Act) * '' Business Names Registration Act 2011'' * ''Corporations Act 2001'' (Corporations Act) * ''Insurance Contracts Act 1984'' * '' National Consumer Credit Protection Act 2009'' (National Credit Act) Additionally, ASIC is also responsible for administering parts of the following legislation: * '' Banking Act 1959'' * ' ...
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