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Scholarly Databases
The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and Practice theory, practices used by scholars and Academy#Academic personnel, academics to make their claims about the subject as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public. It is the methods that systemically advance the teaching, research, and wikt:practice, practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through Rigour, rigorous inquiry. Scholarship is noted by its significance to its particular profession, and is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, and can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. The scholarly method includes the subcategories of the scientific method, in which scientists prove their claims, and the historical method, in which historians verify their claims. Methods Originally begun in order to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient Classical philosophy, classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology, theol ...
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Gerbrand Van Den Eeckhout 003
Gerbrand may refer to: * Gerbrand (bishop), Gerbrand :da:Gerbrand, (da) (fl. c. 1022-1030), Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Roskilde, Diocese of Roskilde, in Denmark * Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero (1585-1618), Dutch writer * Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (1621-1674), Dutch painter {{Given name Dutch masculine given names ...
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Historian
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding recorded history, written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Some historians are recognized by publications or training and experience.Herman, A. M. (1998). Occupational outlook handbook: 1998-99 edition. Indianapolis: JIST Works. Page 525. "Historian" became a professional occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany and elsewhere. Objectivity During the ''Irving v Penguin Books Ltd, Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt'' trial, it became evident that the court needed to identify what was an "objective historian" in the same vein as the reasonable person, and reminiscent of the standard traditio ...
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Empiricism
In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ..., empiricism is a theory A theory is a rational Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, G ... that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience The theory of sense data is a view in the philosophy of perception The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledg .... It is one of several views of epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study ...
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Variable (mathematics)
In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ..., a variable (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ... '' variabilis'', "changeable") is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. All (and ) is achieved th ... and placeholder for (historically) a quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity an ...
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Causality
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one Event (relativity), event, process, state or object (a ''cause'') contributes to the production of another event, process, state or object (an ''effect'') where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause. In general, a process has many causes, which are also said to be ''causal factors'' for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of, or causal factor for, many other effects, which all lie in its future. Some writers have held that causality is metaphysics, metaphysically prior to notions of time and space. Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of wikt:agency, agency and wikt:efficacy, efficacy. For this reason, a lea ...
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Experimental Method
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likelihood of something previously untried. Experiments provide insight into Causality, cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exist natural experiment, natural experimental studies. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand how things fall to the ground, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and in ...
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Science
Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ... in the form of testable Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components: #Falsifiability or defeasibility, which means that counterexamples to the hypothesis are logically possible. #The practical feasibility of observing a reproducibi ... explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence l ...s and predictions frame, '' The Old Farmer's Almanac'' is famous in the US for its (not necessarily accurate) long-r ...
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Hypothesis
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence l ... for a phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies mat .... For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what ... requires that one can test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (asses ...
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Empirical Method
Empirical research is research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ... using empirical evidence Empirical evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is s .... It is also a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation Observation is the active acquisition of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. Th ... or experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousne ...
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Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis
Dialectic or dialectics ( grc-gre, διαλεκτική, ''dialektikḗ''; related to dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. ...; german: Dialektik), also known as the dialectical method, is a discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy) ... between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam ...
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External Criticism
External may refer to: * External (mathematics), a concept in abstract algebra * Externality, in economics, the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit * Externals, a fictional group of X-Men antagonists See also

* *Internal (other) {{disambig ...
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Epistemology
Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reason, rationality of belief, and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major subfields such as ethics, logic, and metaphysics. Debates in epistemology are generally clustered around four core areas: # The philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and the conditions required for a belief to constitute knowledge, such as truth and Justification (epistemology), justification # Potential sources of knowledge and justified belief, such as perception, reason, memory, and Testimony#Philosophy, testimony # The structure of a body of knowledge or justified belief, including whether all justified beliefs must be derived from justified Foundationalism, foundational beliefs or whether justification r ...
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