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Primitive Reflexes
Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes are suppressed by the development of the frontal lobes as a child transitions normally into child development. These primitive reflexes are also called infantile, infant or newborn reflexes. Older children and adults with atypical neurology (e.g., people with cerebral palsy) may retain these reflexes and primitive reflexes may reappear in adults. Reappearance may be attributed to certain neurological conditions including dementia (especially in a rare set of diseases called frontotemporal degenerations), traumatic lesions, and strokes. An individual with cerebral palsy and typical intelligence can learn to suppress these reflexes, but the reflex might resurface under certain conditions (i.e., during extreme startle reaction). Reflexes may also be limited to those areas affected ...
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Reflex Action
In biology, a reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary, unplanned sequence or action and nearly instantaneous response to a stimulus. Reflexes are found with varying levels of complexity in organisms with a nervous system. A reflex occurs via neural pathways in the nervous system called reflex arcs. A stimulus initiates a neural signal, which is carried to a synapse. The signal is then transferred across the synapse to a motor neuron which evokes a target response. These neural signals do not always travel to the brain, so many reflexes are an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. Many reflexes are fine-tuned to increase organism survival and self-defense. This is observed in reflexes such as the startle reflex, which provides an automatic response to an unexpected stimuli, and the feline righting reflex, which reorients a cat's body when falling to ensure safe landing. The simplest type of reflex, a short-latency reflex, has a ...
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Frontal Release Signs
Frontal release signs are primitive reflexes traditionally held to be a sign of disorders that affect the frontal lobes. The appearance of such signs reflects the area of brain dysfunction rather than a specific disorder which may be diffuse, such as a dementia, or localised, such as a tumor. One reflex thought to have good localizing value is the palmar grasp reflex which usually signifies damage to the frontal lobe of the opposite side. The glabellar reflex or "glabellar tap" is present in individuals with extrapyramidal disorders such as Parkinson's disease. These reflexes are believed to be "hard-wired" before birth, and are therefore able to be elicited in the newborn. As the brain matures, certain areas (usually within the frontal lobes) exert an inhibitory effect, thus causing the reflex to disappear. When disease processes disrupt these inhibitory pathways, the reflex is "released" from inhibition and can be elicited once again, hence the term "frontal release sign". ...
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Moro Reflex In Four-day-old Infant
Moro may refer to: Events * Moro Crater massacre (1906), an engagement in the Philippine–American War * Moro River Campaign (1943), a World War II campaign between Allied and German forces on the Moro river and its headwaters in Italy * Moro insurgency in the Philippines (1969–2014), an ethnoreligious conflict in the Philippines between the predominantly-Catholic government and Muslim separatists Ethnic groups * Moro people, a mostly Muslim people of southern Philippines * Moors, the English variation of the Spanish term ''moro'' referring to Muslim inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa during the Middle Ages * Sri Lankan Moors or Ceylon Moors, an ethnic group * Indian Moors, an ethnic group * Moro people, also known as the Ayoreo people, an indigenous people of Bolivia and Paraguay * Moro Nuba people, a subgroup of the Nuba people in southern Sudan * Moru people, an ethnic group in South Sudan * Moroccans, shortened form or slang referring to people ...
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Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding, or nursing, is the process by which human breast milk is fed to a child. Breast milk may be from the breast, or may be expressed by hand or pumped and fed to the infant. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that breastfeeding begin within the first hour of a baby's life and continue as often and as much as the baby wants. Health organizations, including the WHO, recommend breastfeeding exclusively for six months. This means that no other foods or drinks, other than vitamin D, are typically given. WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, followed by continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods for up to 2 years and beyond. Of the 135 million babies born every year, only 42% are breastfed within the first hour of life, only 38% of mothers practice exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months, and 58% of mothers continue breastfeeding up to the age of two years and beyond. Breastfeeding has a numb ...
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Areola
The human areola (''areola mammae'', or ) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple. Areola, more generally, is a small circular area on the body with a different histology from the surrounding tissue, or other small circular areas such as an inflamed region of skin. The mature human female nipple has several small openings arranged radially around the tip of the lactiferous ducts from which milk is released during lactation. Other small openings in the areola are sebaceous glands, also known as areolar glands. Shade The areolae can range from pink to red to brown to dark brown or nearly black, but generally tend to be paler among people with lighter skin tones and darker among people with darker skin tones. A reason for the differing color may be to make the nipple area more visible to the infant. Size and shape The size and shape of areolae and nipples are also highly variable, with those of women usually being larger than those of men and prepubesce ...
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Nipple
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which, in females, milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts to feed an infant. The milk can flow through the nipple passively or it can be ejected by smooth muscle contractions that occur along with the ductal system. The nipple is surrounded by the areola, which is often a darker colour than the surrounding skin. A nipple is often called a teat when referring to non-humans. Nipple or teat can also be used to describe the flexible mouthpiece of a baby bottle. In humans, the nipples of both males and females can be stimulated as part of sexual arousal. In many cultures, human female nipples are sexualized, or "regarded as sex objects and evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics and sexiness." Anatomy In mammals, a nipple (also called mammary papilla or teat) is a small projection of skin containing the outlets for 15–20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the t ...
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Mammal
Mammals () are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (), characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles (including birds) from which they diverged in the Carboniferous, over 300 million years ago. Around 6,400 extant species of mammals have been described divided into 29 orders. The largest orders, in terms of number of species, are the rodents, bats, and Eulipotyphla ( hedgehogs, moles, shrews, and others). The next three are the Primates (including humans, apes, monkeys, and others), the Artiodactyla (cetaceans and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora ( cats, dogs, seals, and others). In terms of cladistics, which reflects evolutionary history, mammals are the only living members of the Synapsida (synapsids); this clade, toget ...
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Developmental Psychology
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why humans grow, change, and adapt across the course of their lives. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life. This field examines change across three major dimensions, which are physical development, cognitive development, and social emotional development. Within these three dimensions are a broad range of topics including motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social change, personality, emotional development, self-concept, and identity formation. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature ''and'' nurture on the process of human development, as well as processes of change in context across time. Many researchers are interested in the interactions am ...
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Moro Reflex
The Moro reflex is an infantile reflex that develops between 28 and 32 weeks of gestation and disappears at 3–6 months of age. It is a response to a sudden loss of support and involves three distinct components: # spreading out the arms (abduction) # pulling the arms in ( adduction) # crying (usually) It is distinct from the startle reflex. Unlike the startle reflex, the Moro reflex does not decrease with repeated stimulation. The primary significance of the Moro reflex is in evaluating integration of the central nervous system. Eliciting the Moro reflex Ernst Moro elicited the Moro reflex by slapping the pillow on both sides of the infant's head. Other methods have been used since then, including rapidly lowering the infant (while supported) to a sudden stop and pinching the skin of the abdomen. Today, the most common method is the head drop, where the infant is supported in both hands and tilted suddenly so the head is a few centimeters lower than the level of the body ...
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BMJ Open
''BMJ Open'' is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal that is dedicated to publishing medical research from all disciplines and therapeutic areas. It is published by BMJ and considers all research study types, from protocols through phase I trials to meta-analyses, including small, specialist studies, and negative studies. Publishing procedures are built around fully open peer review and continuous publication, publishing research online as soon as the article is ready. ''BMJ Open'' aims to promote transparency in the publication process by publishing reviewer reports and previous versions of manuscripts as prepublication histories.The editor-in-chief is Adrian Aldcroft. Abstracting and indexing Since 2014 the journal is included in the Index Medicus and in MEDLINE. The journal is also abstracted and indexed in Scopus, the Science Citation Index Expanded., PubMed Central, Embase (Excerpta Medica), DOAJ and Google Scholar. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the ...
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Amiel Tison
Amiel is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include: Surname: * Barbara Amiel (born 1940), writer and wife of Conrad Black * Gausbert Amiel (fl. 13th century), troubadour * Henri-Frédéric Amiel (1821–1881), Swiss philosopher, poet and critic * Jack Amiel (fl. 20th–21st century), American screenwriter * Jon Amiel (born 1948), British director * Stephanie Amiel (born 1954), British physician and academic * Thierry Amiel (born 1982), French singer Given name: * Amiel Daemion Amiel Muki Daemion (born 13 August 1979), also known as just Amiel, is an American-Australian pop singer, songwriter and actress. She moved to Australia with her family at the age of two and starred in films in the 1990s, including '' The Silver ...
(born 1979), American-Australian pop singer {{given name, type=both ...
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Myelin
Myelin is a lipid-rich material that surrounds nerve cell axons (the nervous system's "wires") to insulate them and increase the rate at which electrical impulses (called action potentials) are passed along the axon. The myelinated axon can be likened to an electrical wire (the axon) with insulating material (myelin) around it. However, unlike the plastic covering on an electrical wire, myelin does not form a single long sheath over the entire length of the axon. Rather, myelin sheaths the nerve in segments: in general, each axon is encased with multiple long myelinated sections with short gaps in between called nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is formed in the central nervous system (CNS; brain, spinal cord and optic nerve) by glial cells called oligodendrocytes and in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) by glial cells called Schwann cells. In the CNS, axons carry electrical signals from one nerve cell body to another. In the PNS, axons carry signals to muscles and glands or fr ...
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