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Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act is a United States federal law passed by the 47th United States Congress and signed into law by President Chester A. Arthur on January 16, 1883. The act mandates that most positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political patronage. By the late 1820s, American politics operated on the spoils system, a political patronage practice in which officeholders awarded their allies with government jobs in return for financial and political support. Proponents of the spoils system were successful at blocking meaningful civil service reform until the assassination of President James A. Garfield in 1881. The 47th Congress passed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act during its lame duck session and President Chester A. Arthur, himself a former spoilsman, signed the bill into law. The Pendleton Civil Service Act provided for the selection of some government employees by competitive exams, rather th ...
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George H
George may refer to: People * George (given name) * George (surname) * George (singer), American-Canadian singer George Nozuka, known by the mononym George * George Washington, First President of the United States * George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States * George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States * George V, King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 1910-1936 * George VI, King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 1936-1952 * Prince George of Wales * George Papagheorghe also known as Jorge / GEØRGE * George, stage name of Giorgio Moroder * George Harrison, an English musician and singer-songwriter Places South Africa * George, Western Cape ** George Airport United States * George, Iowa * George, Missouri * George, Washington * George County, Mississippi * George Air Force Base, a former U.S. Air Force base located in California Characters * George (Peppa Pig), a 2- ...
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White Supremacist
White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to those of other races and thus should dominate them. The belief favors the maintenance and defense of any power and privilege held by white people. White supremacy has roots in the now-discredited doctrine of scientific racism and was a key justification for European colonialism. As a political ideology, it imposes and maintains cultural, social, political, historical, and/or institutional domination by white people and non-white supporters. In the past, this ideology had been put into effect through socioeconomic and legal structures such as the Atlantic slave trade, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the White Australia policies from the 1890s to the mid-1970s, and apartheid in South Africa. This ideology is also today present among neo-Confederates. White supremacy underlies a spectrum of contemporary movements including white nationalism, white separatism, neo-Nazism, and the C ...
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Recess Appointment
In the United States, a recess appointment is an appointment by the president of a federal official when the U.S. Senate is in recess. Under the U.S. Constitution's Appointments Clause, the President is empowered to nominate, and with the advice and consent (confirmation) of the Senate, make appointments to high-level policy-making positions in federal departments, agencies, boards, and commissions, as well as to the federal judiciary. A recess appointment under Article II, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution is an alternative method of appointing officials that allows the temporary filling of offices during periods when the Senate is not in session. It was anticipated that the Senate would be away for months at a time, so the ability to fill vacancies in important positions when the Senate is in recess and unavailable to provide advice and consent was deemed essential to maintain government function, as described by Alexander Hamilton in No. 67 of ''The Federalist Pape ...
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Alonzo B
Alonzo is both a given name and a Spanish surname. Notable people with the name include: Mononym * Alonzo (rapper), French singer and hip hop artist, formerly Segnor Alonzo of Psy 4 de la Rime Given name * Alonzo de Barcena, 16th-century Spanish Jesuit missionary and linguist * Alonzo de Santa Cruz (–1567), Spanish cartographer, mapmaker, instrument maker, historian and teacher * Alonzo Babers (b. 1961), U.S. athlete * Alonzo L. Best (1854–1923), U.S. politician *Alonzo Bodden, U.S. comedian * Alonzo Church (1903–1995), U.S. mathematician and computer scientist *Alonzo Clemons, U.S. autistic savant clay sculptor * Alonzo B. Cornell (1832–1904), a Governor of New York *Alonzo Drake (1884–1919), English footballer and cricketer * Alonzo J. Edgerton (1827–1896), U.S. politician * Alonzo Dillard Folger (1888–1941), U.S. politician *Alonzo Gee, American basketball player * Alonzo A. Hinckley (1870–1936), U.S. official of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Sai ...
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Collector Of The Port Of New York
The Collector of Customs at the Port of New York, most often referred to as Collector of the Port of New York, was a federal officer who was in charge of the collection of import duties on foreign goods that entered the United States by ship at the Port of New York. The best-known individual to hold the position was Chester A. Arthur, who served as collector from 1871–1878 and who later served as the 21st president of the United States. History The first Collector, John Lamb, was appointed by George Washington in 1789. He had previously served as Collector of Customs for the State of New York from 1784. The office was described as "the prize plum of Federal patronage not only in this State but perhaps in the country, outside of positions in the Cabinet." Customs collections at US ports were overseen by three political appointees—the Collector, Surveyor, and Naval Officer. Because they were originally paid based on a percentage system that factored in both customs collect ...
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Chester Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. He previously served as the 20th vice president under President James A. Garfield. Arthur succeeded the presidency upon Garfield's death in September 1881—two months after being shot by an assassin. Arthur was born in Fairfield, Vermont, grew up in upstate New York and practiced law in New York City. He served as quartermaster general of the New York Militia during the American Civil War. Following the war, he devoted more time to New York Republican politics and quickly rose in Senator Roscoe Conkling's political organization. President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him to the post of Collector of the Port of New York in 1871, and he was an important supporter of Conkling and the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party. In 1878, President Rutherford B. Hayes fired Arthur as part of a plan to reform the fed ...
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Eric Foner
Eric Foner (; born February 7, 1943) is an American historian. He writes extensively on American political history, the history of freedom, the early history of the Republican Party, African-American biography, the American Civil War, Reconstruction, and historiography, and has been a member of the faculty at the Columbia University Department of History since 1982. He is the author of several popular textbooks. According to the Open Syllabus Project, Foner is the most frequently cited author on college syllabi for history courses. Foner has published numerous books on the Reconstruction period, having published '' Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution - 1863-1877'' in 1989 and more than 10 other books on the topic.Perman, Michael. "Eric Foner's Reconstruction: A Finished Revolution". ''Reviews in American History,'' Vol. 17, No. 1. (March 1989), pp. 73–78. His online courses on "The Civil War and Reconstruction", published in 2014, are available from Columbia Univers ...
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Executive Order (United States)
In the United States, an executive order is a directive by the president of the United States that manages operations of the federal government. The legal or constitutional basis for executive orders has multiple sources. Article Two of the United States Constitution gives presidents broad executive and enforcement authority to use their discretion to determine how to enforce the law or to otherwise manage the resources and staff of the executive branch. The ability to make such orders is also based on expressed or implied Acts of Congress that delegate to the president some degree of discretionary power ( delegated legislation).John Contrubis, '' Executive Orders and Proclamations'', CRS Report for Congress #95-722A, March 9, 1999, Pp. 1-2 The vast majority of executive orders are proposed by federal agencies before being issued by the president. Like both legislative statutes and the regulations promulgated by government agencies, executive orders are subject to judici ...
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Roscoe Conkling
Roscoe Conkling (October 30, 1829April 18, 1888) was an American lawyer and Republican politician who represented New York in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. He is remembered today as the leader of the Republican Stalwart faction and a dominant figure in the Senate during the 1870s. Conkling, who was temperate and detested tobacco, was known for his physical condition, maintained through regular exercise and boxing, an unusual devotion for his time. While in the U.S. House, Conkling served as bodyguard for abolitionist Representative Thaddeus Stevens and fully supported the Union during the American Civil War. Conkling was elevated to the Senate in 1867 as a leading Radical Republican supporter of equal rights for freed Black Americans. As Senator, his control of patronage at the New York Customs House, one of the busiest commercial ports in the world, made him incredibly powerful. His comity with President Ulysses S. Grant and con ...
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Rutherford B
Rutherford may refer to: Places Australia * Rutherford, New South Wales, a suburb of Maitland * Rutherford (Parish), New South Wales, a civil parish of Yungnulgra County Canada * Mount Rutherford, Jasper National Park * Rutherford, Edmonton, neighbourhood * Rutherford House, in Edmonton, Alberta * Rutherford Library, University of Alberta United Kingdom * Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire United States * Rutherford, California, in Napa County * East Rutherford, New Jersey * Rutherford, New Jersey * Rutherford, Pennsylvania * Rutherford, Virginia * Rutherford, West Virginia * Rutherford County, North Carolina * Rutherford County, Tennessee People * Rutherford (name), people with the surname or given name ** Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937), 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, known as the father of nuclear physics ** Rutherford B. Hayes (1822–1893), 19th president of the United States (1877–1881) Fiction * Rutherford the Brave, a character from Ga ...
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Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner (January 6, 1811March 11, 1874) was an American statesman and United States Senator from Massachusetts. As an academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the anti-slavery forces in the state and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the U.S. Senate during the American Civil War. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. He fell into a dispute with President Ulysses Grant, a fellow Republican, over the control of Santo Domingo, leading to the stripping of his power in the Senate and his subsequent effort to defeat Grant's re-election. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the 1830s and 1840s before coalescing in the 1850s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known. He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans called the Slave Power, that is, to the ending ...
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Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP ("Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s. The Republican Party's intellectual predecessor is considered to be Northern members of the Whig Party, with Republican presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, Chester A. Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison all being Whigs before switching to the party, from which they were elected. The collapse of the Whigs, which had previously been one of the two major parties in the country, strengthened the party's electoral success. Upon its founding, it supported c ...
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