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Oxidizing Agents
An oxidizing agent (also known as an oxidant, oxidizer, electron recipient, or electron acceptor) is a substance in a redox chemical reaction that gains or " accepts"/"receives" an electron from a (called the , , or ). In other words, an oxidizer is any substance that oxidizes another substance. The oxidation state, which describes the degree of loss of electrons, of the oxidizer decreases while that of the reductant increases; this is expressed by saying that oxidizers "undergo reduction" and "are reduced" while reducers "undergo oxidation" and "are oxidized". Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the halogens. In one sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that undergoes a chemical reaction in which it gains one or more electrons. In that sense, it is one component in an oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction. In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms, usually oxygen, to a substrate. Comb ...
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Organic Redox Reaction
Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds. In organic chemistry oxidations and reductions are different from ordinary redox reactions, because many reactions carry the name but do not actually involve electron transfer.March Jerry; (1985). Advanced Organic Chemistry reactions, mechanisms and structure (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, inc. Instead the relevant criterion for organic oxidation is gain of oxygen and/or loss of hydrogen, respectively.''Organic Redox Systems: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications'', Tohru Nishinaga 2016 Simple functional groups can be arranged in order of increasing oxidation state. The oxidation numbers are only an approximation: When methane is oxidized to carbon dioxide its oxidation number changes from −4 to +4. Classical reductions include alkene reduction to alkanes and classical oxidations include oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes. In oxidati ...
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Oxygen
Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. Oxygen is Earth's most abundant element, and after hydrogen and helium, it is the third-most abundant element in the universe. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula . Diatomic oxygen gas currently constitutes 20.95% of the Earth's atmosphere, though this has changed considerably over long periods of time. Oxygen makes up almost half of the Earth's crust in the form of oxides.Atkins, P.; Jones, L.; Laverman, L. (2016).''Chemical Principles'', 7th edition. Freeman. Many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen atoms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and ...
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Manganate
In inorganic nomenclature, a manganate is any negatively charged molecular entity with manganese as the central atom.. However, the name is usually used to refer to the tetraoxidomanganate(2−) anion, MnO, also known as manganate(VI) because it contains manganese in the +6 oxidation state. Manganates are the only known manganese(VI) compounds.. Other manganates include hypomanganate or manganate(V), , permanganate or manganate(VII), , and the dimanganate or dimanganate(III) . A manganate(IV) anion has been prepared by radiolysis of dilute solutions of permanganate.. It is mononuclear in dilute solution, and shows a strong absorption in the ultraviolet and a weaker absorption at 650 nm. Structure The manganate(VI) ion is tetrahedral, similar to sulfate or chromate: indeed, manganates are often isostructural with sulfates and chromates, a fact first noted by Eilhard Mitscherlich in 1831.. The manganese–oxygen distance is 165.9 pm, about 3 pm longer than in ...
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Oxide
An oxide () is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– (molecular) ion. with oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust consists of oxides. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating. For example, aluminium foil develops a thin skin of Al2O3 (called a passivation layer) that protects the foil from further corrosion.Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. . Stoichiometry (the measurable relationship between reactants and chemical equations of a equation or reaction) Oxides are extraordinarily diverse in terms of stoichiometries and in terms of the structures of each stoichiometry. Most elements form oxides of more than one stoichiometry. A well known example is carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry ...
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Perchlorate
A perchlorate is a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion, . The majority of perchlorates are commercially produced salts. They are mainly used as oxidizers for pyrotechnic devices and to control static electricity in food packaging. Perchlorate contamination in food, Water pollution, water, and other parts of the environment has been studied in the U.S. because of harmful effects on human health. Perchlorate ions are somewhat toxic to the thyroid gland. Most perchlorates are colorless solids that are soluble in water. Four perchlorates are of primary commercial interest: ammonium perchlorate , perchloric acid , potassium perchlorate and sodium perchlorate . Perchlorate is the anion resulting from the dissociation of perchloric acid and its salts upon their dissolution in water. Many perchlorate salts are soluble in non-aqueous solutions. Production Perchlorate salts are produced industrially by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of sodium chlorate by electrolysis. This ...
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Osmium Tetroxide
Osmium tetroxide (also osmium(VIII) oxide) is the chemical compound with the formula OsO4. The compound is noteworthy for its many uses, despite its toxicity and the rarity of osmium. It also has a number of unusual properties, one being that the solid is volatile. The compound is colourless, but most samples appear yellow. This is most likely due to the presence of the impurity OsO2, which is yellow-brown in colour. In biology, its property of binding to lipids has made it a widely-used stain in electron microscopy. Physical properties Osmium(VIII) oxide forms monoclinic crystals. It has a characteristic acrid chlorine-like odor. The element name osmium is derived from ''osme'', Greek for ''odor''. OsO4 is volatile: it sublimes at room temperature. It is soluble in a wide range of organic solvents. It is also moderately soluble in water, with which it reacts reversibly to form osmic acid (see below). ''Pure'' osmium(VIII) oxide is probably colourless and it has been sug ...
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Chromate Ion
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, . Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, . They are oxyanions of chromium in the +6 oxidation state and are moderately strong oxidizing agents. In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible. Chemical properties Potassium-chromate-sample.jpg, potassium chromate Potassium-dichromate-sample.jpg, potassium dichromate Chromates react with hydrogen peroxide, giving products in which peroxide, , replaces one or more oxygen atoms. In acid solution the unstable blue peroxo complex Chromium(VI) oxide peroxide, CrO(O2)2, is formed; it is an uncharged covalent molecule, which may be extracted into ether. Addition of pyridine results in the formation of the more stable complex CrO(O2)2py. Acid–base properties In aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate anions exist in a chemical equilibrium. :2  + 2 H+ + H2O The predominance diagram shows that the position of the equilibrium depends on ...
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Permanganate
A permanganate () is a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion, , the conjugate base of permanganic acid. Because the manganese atom is in the +7 oxidation state, the permanganate(VII) ion is a strong oxidizing agent. The ion is a transition metal oxo complex with tetrahedral geometry. Permanganate solutions are purple in color and are stable in neutral or slightly alkaline media. The exact chemical reaction is dependent upon the organic contaminants present and the oxidant utilized. For example, trichloroethane (C2H3Cl3) is oxidized by permanganate ions to form carbon dioxide (CO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), hydrogen ions (H+), and chloride ions (Cl−). :8 + 3 → 6 + 8 + + 4 + 9 In an acidic solution, permanganate(VII) is reduced to the pale pink +2 oxidation state of the manganese(II) (Mn2+) ion. :8  + + 5 e− → Mn2+ + 4 H2O In a strongly basic solution, permanganate(VII) is reduced to the green +6 oxidation state of the manganate ion, ...
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Standard Electrode Potential (data Page)
The data values of standard electrode potentials (''E''°) are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions: * A temperature of . * An effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species or a species in a mercury amalgam (an alloy of mercury with another metal). * A partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value (1 atm) rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa (1 bar) presently considered in the standard state. * An activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, or for water (solvent). The relation in electrode potential of metals in saltwater (as electrolyte) is given in the '' galvanic series''. * Although many of the half cells are written for multiple-electron transfers, the tabulated potentials are for a single-electron transfer. All of the rea ...
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Chemical Reviews
''Chemical Reviews'' is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society. It publishes review articles on all aspects of chemistry. It was established in 1924 by William Albert Noyes ( University of Illinois). the editor-in-chief is Sharon Hammes-Schiffer. Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, CAB International, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and the Science Citation Index. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2020 impact factor of 60.622. See also * Accounts of Chemical Research ''Accounts of Chemical Research'' is a semi-monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry. It was established in 1968 and th ... References External links * American Chemical Society academic journals Review journals Monthly j ...
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Magic Blue
Tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate is the organic compound with the formula 4-BrC6H4)3NbCl6. Commonly known as magic blue, it is the hexachloroantimonate salt of an amine radical cation. It is a blue solid that reacts with many solvents but is soluble in acetonitrile. The compound is a popular oxidizing agent in organic and organometallic chemistry, with a reduction potential of 0.67 V versus ferrocene/ferrocenium (acetonitrile solution) or 0.70 V versus ferrocene/ferrocenium (dichloromethane solution). The structure of the cation consists of a three-bladed propeller structure with a planar amine. It is nearly identical to the parent triphenylamine. The weakly coordinating anion Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is weakly coordinating anion. Non-coordinating anions are useful in studying the reactivity of electrophilic cations. They are commonly found ... is , which is octahedral. ...
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