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National Institute Of Justice
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development and evaluation agency of the United States Department of Justice. NIJ, along with the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), and other program offices, comprise the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) branch of the Department of Justice. History The National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice was established on October 21, 1968, under the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, as a component of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA). In 1978, it was renamed as the National Institute of Justice. Some functions of the LEAA were absorbed by NIJ on December 27, 1979, with passage of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979. The act, which amended the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, also led to creation of the Bureau of Justic ...
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Federal Government Of The United States
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States, a federal republic located primarily in North America, composed of 50 states, a city within a federal district (the city of Washington in the District of Columbia, where most of the federal government is based), five major self-governing territories and several island possessions. The federal government, sometimes simply referred to as Washington, is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively. The powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts of Congress, including the creation of executive departments and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. Naming The full name of the republic is "United States of America". No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is ...
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Presidential Appointment Efficiency And Streamlining Act Of 2011
President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full-size sedan * Studebaker President, a 1926–1942 American full-size sedan * VinFast President, a 2020–present Vietnamese mid-size SUV Film and television *'' Præsidenten'', a 1919 Danish silent film directed by Carl Theodor Dreyer * ''The President'' (1928 film), a German silent drama * ''President'' (1937 film), an Indian film * ''The President'' (1961 film) * ''The Presidents'' (film), a 2005 documentary * ''The President'' (2014 film) * ''The President'' (South Korean TV series), a 2010 South Korean television series * ''The President'' (Palestinian TV series), a 2013 Palestinian reality television show *'' The President Show'', a 2017 Comedy Central political satirical parody sitcom Music *The Presidents (American soul band) *The ...
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Corrections
In criminal justice, particularly in North America, correction, corrections, and correctional, are umbrella terms describing a variety of functions typically carried out by government agencies, and involving the punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have been convicted of crimes. These functions commonly include imprisonment, parole, and probation.Bryan A. Garner, editor, ''Black's Law Dictionary'', 9th ed., West Group, 2009, , 0-314-19949-7, p. 396 (or p. 424 depending on the volume) A typical ''correctional institution'' is a prison. A ''correctional system'', also known as a ''penal system'', thus refers to a network of agencies that administer a jurisdiction's prisons, and community-based programs like parole, and probation boards. This system is part of the larger criminal justice system, which additionally includes police, prosecution and courts. Jurisdictions throughout Canada and the US have ministries or departments, respectively, of corrections, ...
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Violence Against Women
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), are violent acts primarily or exclusively committed against women or girls, usually by men or boys. Such violence is often considered a form of hate crime, committed against women or girls specifically because they are female, and can take many forms. VAW has a very long history, though the incidents and intensity of such violence have varied over time and even today vary between societies. Such violence is often seen as a mechanism for the subjugation of women, whether in society in general or in an interpersonal relationship. Such violence may arise from a sense of entitlement, superiority, misogyny or similar attitudes in the perpetrator or his violent nature, especially against women. The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women ...
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Criminal Justice
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have been accused of committing crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions. Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral support for victims. The primary institutions of the criminal justice system are the police, prosecution and defense lawyers, the courts and the prisons system. Criminal justice system Definition The criminal justice system consists of three main parts: #Law enforcement agencies, usually the police # Courts and accompanying prosecution and defence lawyers #Agencies for detaining and supervising offenders, such as prisons and probation agencies. In the criminal justice system, these distinct agencies operate together as the principal means of maintaining the rule of law within society. Law enforcement The first contact a defendant has with the criminal justice system is usually with the police (or ''law enforcement' ...
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Criminology
Criminology (from Latin , "accusation", and Ancient Greek , ''-logia'', from λόγος ''logos'' meaning: "word, reason") is the study of crime and deviant behaviour. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioural and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, political scientists, economists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, social workers, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. Criminologists are the people working and researching the study of crime and society's response to crime. Some criminologists examine behavioral patterns of possible criminals. Generally, criminologists conduct research and investigations, developing theories and analyzing empirical patterns. The interests of criminologists include the study of nature of crime and criminals, origins of criminal law, etiology of crime, social reaction to crime, and the functioning of law enforcement agencies and the penal in ...
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Nancy Rodriguez (criminologist)
Nancy Rodriguez (born June 6, 1970) is an American criminologist and professor in the School of Social Ecology at the University of California, Irvine. Her research focuses on substance abuse, juvenile court decision-making, and sentencing policies. She previously taught in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University from 1998 to 2015. She was the director of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) from February 9, 2015, to January 13, 2017. She was originally nominated to direct the NIJ in 2014 by then-president of the United States Barack Obama. Biography Rodriguez received her B.A. in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University in 1992 and her Ph.D. in political science from Washington State University in 1998. She joined the faculty of ASU in 1998. She has received multiple awards, including the Coramae Richey Mann Award from the American Society of Criminology and the W.E.B. DuBois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ; February ...
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Greg Ridgeway
Gregory Kirk Ridgeway (born 1973) is professor of criminology and statistics at the University of Pennsylvania, where he is also chair of the Department of Criminology. Education Ridgeway received his B.S. from California Polytechnic State University in 1995 and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1997 and 1999, respectively. All three of his degrees are in statistics. His Ph.D. thesis was entitled "Generalization of boosting algorithms and applications of Bayesian inference for massive datasets". Career Early in his career, Ridgeway worked at the RAND Corporation, where he served as the director of the Safety and Justice Program from 2009 to 2012, and of the Center for Quality Policing from 2008 to 2012. He later served as the acting director of the National Institute of Justice for 19 months before joining the University of Pennsylvania in August 2014. In January 2021, he was named the co-editor-in-chief of the ''Journal of Quantitative Criminology''. Resea ...
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John H
John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname) John may also refer to: New Testament Works * Gospel of John, a title often shortened to John * First Epistle of John, often shortened to 1 John * Second Epistle of John, often shortened to 2 John * Third Epistle of John, often shortened to 3 John People * John the Baptist (died c. AD 30), regarded as a prophet and the forerunner of Jesus Christ * John the Apostle (lived c. AD 30), one of the twelve apostles of Jesus * John the Evangelist, assigned author of the Fourth Gospel, once identified with the Apostle * John of Patmos, also known as John the Divine or John the Revelator, the author of the Book of Revelation, once identified with the Apostle * John the Presbyter, a figure either identified with or distinguished from the Apostle, the Evangelist and John of Patmos Other people with the given name Religious figures * John, father of Andrew the Apostle and Saint Peter * Pope John ...
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Jeremy Travis
Jeremy Travis (born July 31, 1948) is an American academic administrator who served as the fourth president of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, a senior college of the City University of New York, starting on August 16, 2004. On October 25, 2016, Travis announced that he would step down from his position as president the next year. In August 2017, he joined the Arnold Ventures LLC as Senior Vice President of Criminal Justice. Education Travis received his B.A., ''cum laude'', in American Studies from Yale College in 1970, and was the recipient of the C. Douglas Green Memorial Prize in History and the Saybrook Fellows Prize. He received his M.P.A. from New York University's Robert F. Wagner School of Public Service in 1977, and his J.D. from New York University School of Law in 1982. He was elected to the Order of the Coif, and was a member of the New York University Law Review. He was also the recipient of the John Norton Pomeroy Prize for academic achievement and the Arthu ...
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Charles B DeWitt
Charles B. DeWitt, is an American government official who served at the White House Office and the United States Department of Justice. DeWitt served as Director of the National Institute of Justice from 1990 to 1993. Education A native of California, DeWitt studied criminology at Oxford and University of Cambridge and is a graduate of Stanford University. He rose from deputy sheriff to Director of the Justice Division for Santa Clara County, leaving his post in 1984 to become a Fellow at the Department of Justice, where he was responsible for corrections and law enforcement programs. Career White House DeWitt was assigned by the Department of Justice to the White House, where he was responsible for a classified task force report on border security to enhance coordination between domestic policy and national security agencies. He was appointed by the White House to serve as Director of Border Security. DeWitt also worked with the United States Domestic Policy Council, and ...
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Ralph Siu
Ralph Gun Hoy Siu (1917 – December 29, 1998) was an American scholar, military and civil servant, and author. Siu served as the first Director of the National Institute of Justice from 1968 to 1969. Early life and education Siu was born in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1917. Siu obtained his bachelor's degree in chemistry and master's degree in plant physiology. from the University of Hawaii. He then earned a Ph.D in bio-organic chemistry from the California Institute of Technology. Career After earning his Ph.D, Siu joined the Quartermaster Corps and headed a team of researchers that developed new fabrics, clothing and equipment for jungle use. As the Quartermaster Corps’ Director of Laboratories and Chief Scientific and Technical Director for more than a decade (1948–1962), Siu led numerous projects, including pioneer efforts on food irradiation – a key component of President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace program. In 1961, he received the National Career Civil Serv ...
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