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Metallurgical Laboratory
The Metallurgical Laboratory (or Met Lab) was a scientific laboratory at the University of Chicago The University of Chicago (UChicago) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ... that was established in February 1942 to study and use the newly discovered chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo du ... plutonium Plutonium is a radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material co .... It researched plutonium's che ...
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Plutonium
Plutonium is a radioactive Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay, radioactivity, radioactive disintegration or nuclear disintegration) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by radiation. A material containing unstable nuclei is consid ... chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, eleme ... with the symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. All (and ) is achieved th ... Pu and atomic number 300px, The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon ene ...
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American Football
American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular American football field, field with goalposts at each end. The offense (sports), offense, the team with possession of the oval-shaped Ball (gridiron football), football, attempts to advance down the field by Rush (gridiron football), running with the ball or Forward pass#American and Canadian football, passing it, while the Defense (sports), defense, the team without possession of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four Down (gridiron football), downs or plays; if they fail, they turnover on downs, turn over the football to the defense, but if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs to continue the Glossary of American football#drive, drive. Points are scored primarily by advancing ...
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X-10 Graphite Reactor
The X-10 Graphite Reactor is a decommissioned nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction 300px, A possible nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235 atom absorbs a neutron">uranium-235.html" ;"ti ... at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a U.S. multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT–Battelle as a federally funded research an ... in Oak Ridge, Tennessee Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson County, Tennessee, Anderson and Roane County, Tennessee, Roane counties in the East Tennessee, eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of downtown Knoxville, Tennessee, Knoxville. Oak Ridge's popula .... Formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, it was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after E ...
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Critical Mass
In nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The ..., a critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile In nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, veh ... material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction 300px, A possible nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235 atom absorbs a neutron">uranium-235.html" ;"title="nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235">nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235 atom absorbs a neutron, .... The critical mass of a fissionable material depends upon its nuclear properties (specifically, its n ...
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Neutron Moderator
In nuclear engineering Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The ..., a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , which has a neutral (not positive or negative) charge, and a mass slightly greater than that of a ..., ideally without capturing any, leaving them as thermal neutrons The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion (physics), motion. It is defined as th ... with only minimal (thermal) kinetic energy. These thermal neutrons are i ...
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Heavy Water
Heavy water (deuterium oxide, , ) is a form of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ... that contains only deuterium Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific elemen ... ( or D, also known as ''heavy hydrogen'') rather than the common hydrogen-1 Hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all ... isotope ( or H, also called ''protium'') that makes up most of the hydroge ...
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Chicago Pile-3
Chicago Pile-3 (CP-3) was the world's first heavy water reactor A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor that uses heavy water Heavy water (deuterium oxide, , ) is a form of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless .... One of the first research reactors Research reactors are nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a fission nuclear chain reaction 300px, A possible nuclear fission chain reaction: 1) A uranium-235 atom ..., it was built in 1943 near Palos Hills, Illinois Palos Hills is a city in Cook County, Illinois Illinois ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern region of the United States. It has the List of U.S. states and territories by GDP, fifth largest gross domest ..., original site of Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory is a sc ...
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Red Gate Woods
Red Gate Woods is a forest preserve section within the Palos Division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County The Forest Preserve District of Cook County is a governmental commission in Cook County, Illinois, that owns and manages a network of open spaces, containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes, that are mostly set aside as natural areas. ..., Illinois. It is located near where the Cal-Sag Channel meets the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal. In the woods is the original site of Argonne National Laboratory and the Site A, Site A/Plot M Disposal Site, which contains the buried remains of Chicago Pile-1, the world's first artificial nuclear reactor. This section of the forest preserves, then code named Argonne (after Forest of Argonne) was leased by county commissioners to the Manhattan Project (and later Argonne Laboratory) in the 1940s and 1950s. After its initial tests, the reactor at Stagg Field at the University of Chicago was removed and reassembled a ...
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World War II
World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newsp ... that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement between nations concerning national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, c ...s: the Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been wor ...
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Atomic Bomb
A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either nuclear fission, fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and nuclear fusion, fusion reactions (Thermonuclear weapon, thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The Trinity (nuclear test), first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to . The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb Ivy Mike, test released energy approximately equal to . Nuclear bombs have had Nuclear weapon yield, yields between 10 tons TNT (the W54) and 50 megatons for the Tsar Bomba (see TNT equivalent). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than can release energy equal to more than . A nuclear device no larger than a conventional bomb can devastate an entire c ...
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Allies Of World War II
The Allies of World War II were a group of countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the World War II, Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to defeat Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan, Fascist Italy (1922–1943), Fascist Italy and their allies. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of Second Polish Republic, Poland, the United Kingdom, and French Third Republic, France as well as their Dependent territory, dependent states, such as British Raj, British India. They were joined by the independent Dominions of the Commonwealth of Nations, British Commonwealth: Canada, Australia, Dominion of New Zealand, New Zealand and Union of South Africa, South Africa. After the start of the Battle of Belgium, German invasion Battle of the Netherlands, of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign (World War II), Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium, Kingdom of Greece, Greece, and Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Yugosl ...
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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products and improving existing o ... undertaking during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ... that produced the first nuclear weapon A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reaction In nuclear physics and nucl ...s. It was led by the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as ...
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