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Lycopodiopsida
Lycopodiopsida is a class of vascular plants known as lycopods, lycophytes or other terms including the component lyco-. Members of the class are also called clubmosses, firmosses, spikemosses and quillworts. They have dichotomously branching stems bearing simple leaves called microphylls and reproduce by means of spores borne in sporangia on the sides of the stems at the bases of the leaves. Although living species are small, during the Carboniferous, extinct tree-like forms formed huge forests that dominated the landscape and contributed to coal deposits. The nomenclature and classification of plants with microphylls varies substantially among authors. A consensus classification for extant (living) species was produced in 2016 by the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group (PPG I), which places them all in the class Lycopodiopsida, which includes the classes Isoetopsida and Selaginellopsida used in other systems. (See Table 2.) Alternative classification systems have used ranks f ...
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Isoetes
''Isoetes'', commonly known as the quillworts, is the only extant genus of plants in the family Isoetaceae, which is in the class of lycopods. There are currently 192 recognized species, with a cosmopolitan distribution but with the individual species often scarce to rare. Some botanists split the genus, separating two South American species into the genus ''Stylites'', although molecular data place these species among other species of ''Isoetes'', so that ''Stylites'' does not warrant taxonomic recognition. Species of ''Isoetes'' virtually identical to modern forms have existed since the Jurassic epoch. The name of the genus may also be spelled ''Isoëtes''. The diaeresis (two dots over the e) indicates that the o and the e are to be pronounced in two distinct syllables. Including this in print is optional; either spelling (''Isoetes'' or ''Isoëtes'') is correct. Description Quillworts are mostly aquatic or semi-aquatic in clear ponds and slow-moving streams, though several ...
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Lycopodiales
The Lycopodiaceae (class Lycopodiopsida, order Lycopodiales) are an old family of vascular plants, including all of the core clubmosses and firmosses, comprising 16 accepted genera and about 400 known species. This family originated about 380 million years ago in the early Devonian, though the diversity within the family has been much more recent. "Wolf foot" is another common name for this family due to the resemblance of either the roots or branch tips to a wolf's paw. Description Members of Lycopodiaceae are not spermatophytes and so do not produce seeds. Instead they produce spores, which are oily and flammable, and are the most economically important aspects of these plants. The spores are of one size (i.e. the plants are isosporous) and are borne on a specialized structure at the apex of a shoot called a strobilus (plural: strobili), which resembles a tiny battle club, from which the common name derives. Members of the family share the common feature of having a microphy ...
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Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group
The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group, or PPG, is an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the classification of pteridophytes ( lycophytes and ferns) that reflects knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies. In 2016, the group published a classification for extant pteridophytes, termed "PPG I". The paper had 94 authors (26 principal and 68 additional). PPG I A first classification, PPG I, was produced in 2016, covering only extant (living) pteridophytes. The classification was rank-based, using the ranks of class, subclass, order, suborder, family, subfamily and genus. Phylogeny The classification was based on a consensus phylogeny, shown below to the level of order. The very large order Polypodiales was divided into two suborders, as well as families not placed in a suborder: Classification to subfamily level To the level of subfamily, the PPG I classification is as follows. *Class Lycopodi ...
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Vascular Plant
Vascular plants (), also called tracheophytes () or collectively Tracheophyta (), form a large group of land plants ( accepted known species) that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers), and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta, Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida ''sensu lato''. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones. Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants", as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the ...
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Fern
A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. The polypodiophytes include all living pteridophytes except the lycopods, and differ from mosses and other bryophytes by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients and in having life cycles in which the branched sporophyte is the dominant phase. Ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns. They produce coiled fiddleheads that uncoil and expand into fronds. The group includes about 10,560 known extant species. Ferns are defined here in the broad sense, being all of the Polypodiopsida, comprising both the leptosporangiate ( Polypodiidae) and eusporangiate ferns, the latter group including horsetails, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ...
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Vascular Plant
Vascular plants (), also called tracheophytes () or collectively Tracheophyta (), form a large group of land plants ( accepted known species) that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant. They also have a specialized non-lignified tissue (the phloem) to conduct products of photosynthesis. Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, gymnosperms (including conifers), and angiosperms (flowering plants). Scientific names for the group include Tracheophyta, Tracheobionta and Equisetopsida ''sensu lato''. Some early land plants (the rhyniophytes) had less developed vascular tissue; the term eutracheophyte has been used for all other vascular plants, including all living ones. Historically, vascular plants were known as "higher plants", as it was believed that they were further evolved than other plants due to being more complex organisms. However, this is an antiquated remnant of the obsolete scala naturae, and the ...
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Zosterophyll
The zosterophylls are a group of extinct land plants that first appeared in the Silurian period. The taxon was first established by Banks in 1968 as the subdivision Zosterophyllophytina; they have since also been treated as the division Zosterophyllophyta or Zosterophyta and the class or plesion Zosterophyllopsida or Zosteropsida. They were among the first vascular plants in the fossil record, and had a world-wide distribution. They were probably stem-group lycophytes, forming a sister group to the ancestors of the living lycophytes. By the late Silurian (late Ludlovian, about ) a diverse assemblage of species existed, examples of which have been found fossilised in what is now Bathurst Island in Arctic Canada. Morphology The stems of zosterophylls were either smooth or covered with small spines known as enations, branched dichotomously, and grew at the ends by unrolling, a process known as circinate vernation. The stems had a central vascular column in which the ...
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Palhinhaea Cernua
''Palhinhaea'' is a genus of lycophytes in the family Lycopodiaceae. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), it is placed in the subfamily Lycopodielloideae. Some sources do not recognize the genus, sinking it into ''Lycopodiella''. ''Palhinhaea'' species are widespread in the tropics and subtropics. Species , the ''Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World'' recognized the following species: *'' Palhinhaea bradei'' (Nessel) Holub *'' Palhinhaea brevibracteata'' (Alderw.) Holub *'' Palhinhaea camporum'' (B.Øllg. & P.G.Windisch) Holub *'' Palhinhaea cernua'' (L.) Vasc. & Franco *'' Palhinhaea cerrojefensis'' B.Øllg. *''Palhinhaea crassifolia'' (Spring) Fraser-Jenk. & Kholia *''Palhinhaea curvata'' (Sw.) Holub *'' Palhinhaea descendens'' (B.Øllg.) Holub *''Palhinhaea divaricata'' B.Øllg. *'' Palhinhaea eichleri'' (Fée) Holub *''Palhinhaea glaucescens'' (C.Presl) Holub *'' Palhinhaea hainanensis'' C.Y.Yang *''Palhinhaea lehmannii'' (Hieron.) Hol ...
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Selaginella Apoda
''Selaginella apoda'', commonly known as meadow spikemoss, is a perennial lycophyte native to much of the eastern United States and parts of northeastern Mexico. The life cycle is the shortest of the genus ''Selaginella'', as well as one of the shortest among the lycophytes. ''Selaginella apoda'' is found primarily in damp soils in habitats such as swamps, wet fields, open woods and along stream banks. ''Selaginella apoda'' presents the potential for case studies involving the plant's adaptability to environmental toxins. A lowland plant, it has only been recorded at elevations below 100 meters. It is closely related to ''Selaginella eclipes'' and '' S. ludoviciana'', with both of which it has been reported to form hybrids. This group is characterized by relatively flat strobili and large megasporophylls which occur in the same plane as the lateral leaves. The plant was originally described, and named ''Lycopodium apodum'' by Carl Linnaeus in his '' Species Plantarum'' (1753). D ...
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Isoetales
Isoetales, sometimes also written Isoëtales, is an order of plants in the class Lycopodiopsida. There are about 140-150 living species, all of which are classified in the genus ''Isoetes'' (quillworts), with a cosmopolitan distribution, but often scarce to rare. Living species are mostly aquatic or semi-aquatic, and are found in clear ponds and slowly moving streams. Each leaf is slender and broadens downward to a swollen base up to 5 mm wide where the leaves attach in clusters to a bulb-like, underground corm characteristic of most quillworts. This swollen base also contains male and female sporangia, protected by a thin, transparent covering (velum), which is used diagnostically to help identify quillwort species. Quillwort species are very difficult to distinguish by general appearance. The best way to identify them is by examining the megaspores under a microscope. ''Isoetes'' are the only living pteridophytes capable of secondary growth. Fossils Fossilised specime ...
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Selaginellales
''Selaginella'' is the sole genus of vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses. This family is distinguished from Lycopodiaceae (the clubmosses) by having scale-leaves bearing a ligule and by having spores of two types. They are sometimes included in an informal paraphyletic group called the " fern allies". '' S. moellendorffii'' is an important model organism. Its genome has been sequenced by the United States Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute. The name ''Selaginella'' was erected by Palisot de Beauvois solely for the species ''Selaginella selaginoides'', which turns out (with the closely related ''Selaginella deflexa'') to be a clade that is sister to all other ''Selaginellas'', so any definitive subdivision of the species into separate genera leaves two taxa in ''Selaginella'', with the hundreds of other species in new or resurrected genera. ''Selaginella'' occurs mostly in the tropical regions of the world, with a ha ...
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Microphylls And Megaphylls
In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll (or lycophyll) is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein. Plants with microphyll leaves occur early in the fossil record, and few such plants exist today. In the classical concept of a microphyll, the leaf vein emerges from the protostele without leaving a leaf gap. Leaf gaps are small areas above the node of some leaves where there is no vascular tissue, as it has all been diverted to the leaf. Megaphylls, in contrast, have multiple veins within the leaf and leaf gaps above them in the stem. Leaf vasculature The clubmosses and horsetails have microphylls, as in all extant species there is only a single vascular trace in each leaf. These leaves are narrow because the width of the blade is limited by the distance water can efficiently diffuse cell-to-cell from the central vascular strand to the margin of the leaf. Despite their name, microphylls are not always small: those of '' Isoëtes'' can reach 25 centimetres ...
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