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Local Government Code Of 1991
Codification of laws is a common practice in the Philippines. Many general areas of substantive law, such as criminal law, civil law and labor law are governed by legal codes. Tradition of codification Codification is predominant in countries that adhere to the legal system of civil law. Spain, a civil law country, introduced the practice of codification in the Philippines, which it had colonized beginning in the late 16th century. Among the codes that Spain enforced in the Philippines were the Spanish Civil Code and the Penal Code. The practice of codification was retained during the period of American colonial period, even though the United States was a common law jurisdiction. However, during that same period, many common law principles found their way into the legal system by way of legislation and by judicial pronouncements. Judicial precedents of the Philippine Supreme Court were accepted as binding, a practice more attuned to common law jurisdictions. Eventually, t ...
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Codification (law)
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law. Codification is one of the defining features of civil law jurisdictions. In common law systems, such as that of English law, codification is the process of converting and consolidating judge-made law or uncodified statutes enacted by the legislature into statute law. History Ancient Sumer's Code of Ur-Nammu was compiled ''circa'' 2050–1230 BC, and is the earliest known surviving civil code. Three centuries later, the Babylonian king Hammurabi enacted the set of laws named after him. Important codifications were developed in the ancient Roman Empire, with the compilations of the Lex Duodecim Tabularum and much later the Corpus Juris Civilis. These codified laws were the exceptions rather than the rule, however, as during much of ancient times Roman laws were left mostly uncodified. The first ...
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Statutory Interpretation
Statutory interpretation is the process by which courts interpret and apply legislation. Some amount of interpretation is often necessary when a case involves a statute. Sometimes the words of a statute have a plain and a straightforward meaning. But in many cases, there is some ambiguity in the words of the statute that must be resolved by the judge. To find the meanings of statutes, judges use various tools and methods of statutory interpretation, including traditional canons of statutory interpretation, legislative history, and purpose. In common law jurisdictions, the judiciary may apply rules of statutory interpretation both to legislation enacted by the legislature and to delegated legislation such as administrative agency regulations. History Statutory interpretation first became significant in common law systems, of which historically England is the exemplar. In Roman and civil law, a statute (or code) guides the magistrate, but there is no judicial precedent. In En ...
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Law Of Obligations
The law of obligations is one branch of private law under the civil law legal system and so-called "mixed" legal systems. It is the body of rules that organizes and regulates the rights and duties arising between individuals. The specific rights and duties are referred to as ''obligations'', and this area of law deals with their creation, effects and extinction. An obligation is a legal bond (''vinculum iuris'') by which one or more parties (obligants) are bound to act or refrain from acting. An obligation thus imposes on the ''obligor'' a duty to perform, and simultaneously creates a corresponding right to demand performance by the ''obligee'' to whom performance is to be tendered. History The word originally derives from the Latin "obligare" which comes from the root "lig" which suggests being bound, as one is to God for instance in "re-ligio". This term first appears in Plautus' play Truculentus at line 214. Obligations did not originally form part of Roman Law, which mostly ...
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President Of The Philippines
The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometimes referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilipinas'') is the head of state, head of government and chief executive of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The president is directly elected by the people, and is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the vice president of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation. Filipinos generally refer to their president as ''pangulo'' or ''presidente'' in their local language. The president is limited to a single six-year term. No one who has served more than four years of a presidential term is allowed to run or serve again. The current president of the Philippines is Bongbong Marcos, who wa ...
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Executive Departments Of The Philippines
The executive departments of the Philippines are the largest component of the executive branch of the government of the Philippines. These departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy. Current executive departments All departments are listed by their present-day name with their English names on top and Filipino names at the bottom. Department heads are listed at the Cabinet of the Philippines article. Former executive departments The departments listed below are defunct agencies which have been abolished, integrated, reorganized or renamed into the existing executive departments of the Philippines. First Republic * Department of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce * Department of Communications and Public Works * Department of the Interior * Department of Foreign Relations * Department of Public Education * Department of Wars and Marine Commonwealth Period * Department of Agriculture and Commerce * Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource ...
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Executive (government)
The Executive, also referred as the Executive branch or Executive power, is the term commonly used to describe that part of government which enforces the law, and has overall responsibility for the governance of a state. In political systems based on the separation of powers, such as the USA, government authority is distributed between several branches in order to prevent power being concentrated in the hands of a single person or group. To achieve this, each branch is subject to checks by the other two; in general, the role of the Legislature is to pass laws, which are then enforced by the Executive, and interpreted by the Judiciary. The Executive can be also be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. In those that use fusion of powers, typically Parliamentary systems, the Executive forms the government and its members generally belong to the political party that controls the legislature or "Parliament". Since the Executive requires the support ...
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Illegal Drug Trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of prohibited drugs. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws. The think tank Global Financial Integrity's ''Transnational Crime and the Developing World'' report estimates the size of the global illicit drug market between US$426 and US$652billion in 2014 alone. With a world GDP of US$78 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and it remains very difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. History The government of the Qing Dynasty issued edicts against opium smoking in 1730, 1796 and 1800. The West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Beginning in the 18th century, British merchants from ...
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Civil Registry
Civil registration is the system by which a government records the vital events ( births, marriages, and deaths) of its citizens and residents. The resulting repository or database has different names in different countries and even in different US states. It can be called a civil registry, civil register (but this is also an official term for an individual file of a vital event), vital records, and other terms, and the office responsible for receiving the registrations can be called a bureau of vital statistics, registry of vital records and statistics, registrar, registry, register, registry office (officially register office), or population registry. The primary purpose of civil registration is to create a legal document (usually called a ''certificate'') that can be used to establish and protect the rights of individuals. A secondary purpose is to create a data source for the compilation of vital statistics. The United Nations General Assembly in 1979 adopted the Conve ...
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Private Law
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the ''jus commune'' that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts and torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems). It is to be distinguished from public law, which deals with relationships between both natural and artificial persons (i.e., organizations) and the state, including regulatory statutes, penal law and other law that affects the public order. In general terms, private law involves interactions between private individuals, whereas public law involves interrelations between the state and the general population. Concept One of the five capital lawyers in Roman law, Domitius Ulpianus, (170–223) – who differentiated ius publicum versus ius privatum – the European, more exactly the continental law, philosophers and thinkers want(ed) to put each branch of law into this dichotomy: Public and Private ...
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Batasang Pambansa
The Batasang Pambansa Complex, or simply the Batasan (), is the seat of the House of Representatives of the Philippines. It is located along the Batasan Road in Batasan Hills, Quezon City. The complex was initially the home of the Batasang Pambansa, the former legislature of the Philippines which was established as an interim assembly in 1978 and finally as an official body in 1984. Under the 1973 Constitution, it replaced the bicameral Congress of the Philippines established under the 1935 Commonwealth Constitution. When the bicameral Congress was restored in 1987, the complex was set aside as the home of the House of Representatives. The main building of the complex is still often referred to as the ''Batasang Pambansa''. The Senate, the upper house of Congress, does not meet in the Batasan, but in the GSIS Building across Metro Manila in Pasay. History Construction Following the naming of Quezon City as the new capital city of the Philippines in 1948, a cornerstone f ...
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Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. ( , , ; September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician, lawyer, dictator, and kleptocrat who was the 10th president of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He ruled under martial law from 1972 until 1981 p. 189. and kept most of his martial law powers until he was deposed in 1986, branding his rule as " constitutional authoritarianism" under his Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement). One of the most controversial leaders of the 20th century, Marcos's rule was infamous for its corruption, extravagance, and brutality. Marcos gained political success by claiming to have been the "most decorated war hero in the Philippines", but many of his claims have been found to be false, with United States Army documents describing his wartime claims as "fraudulent" and "absurd". After World War II, he became a lawyer then served in the Philippine House of Representatives from 1949 to 1959 and the Philippine Senate from ...
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Republic Acts Of The Philippines
This article contains a partial list of Philippine laws. Sources of Philippine laws ;Notes : *Customs may be considered as supplementary source of law, however, customs which are contrary to law, public order or public policy shall not be countenanced Abbreviations Philippine laws have had various nomenclature designations at different periods in the history of the Philippines, as shown in the following table: Notable laws The following table lists Philippine laws which have been mentioned in Wikipedia, or are otherwise notable. Only laws passed by Congress and its preceding bodies are listed here; presidential decrees and other executive issuances which may otherwise carry the force of law are excluded for the purpose of this table. Lists of laws by year 2020 2019 2018 (10967–11166) 2017 (10925–10966) 2016 (10740–10924) 2015 (10653–10739) 2014 (10635–10652) 2013 (10355–10634) 2012 (10157–10354) 2011 (10148–10156 ...
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