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Kleene Star
In mathematical logic and computer science, the Kleene star (or Kleene operator or Kleene closure) is a unary operation, either on sets of strings or on sets of symbols or characters. In mathematics, it is more commonly known as the free monoid construction. The application of the Kleene star to a set V is written as ''V^*''. It is widely used for regular expressions, which is the context in which it was introduced by Stephen Kleene to characterize certain automata, where it means "zero or more repetitions". # If V is a set of strings, then ''V^*'' is defined as the smallest superset of V that contains the empty string \varepsilon and is closed under the string concatenation operation. # If V is a set of symbols or characters, then ''V^*'' is the set of all strings over symbols in V, including the empty string \varepsilon. The set ''V^*'' can also be described as the set containing the empty string and all finite-length strings that can be generated by concatenating arbitrary ...
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Mathematical Logic
Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power. However, it can also include uses of logic to characterize correct mathematical reasoning or to establish foundations of mathematics. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to and been motivated by the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in proving consistency. Work in set theory sho ...
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Rewrite Rule
In mathematics, computer science, and logic, rewriting covers a wide range of methods of replacing subterms of a formula with other terms. Such methods may be achieved by rewriting systems (also known as rewrite systems, rewrite engines, or reduction systems). In their most basic form, they consist of a set of objects, plus relations on how to transform those objects. Rewriting can be non-deterministic. One rule to rewrite a term could be applied in many different ways to that term, or more than one rule could be applicable. Rewriting systems then do not provide an algorithm for changing one term to another, but a set of possible rule applications. When combined with an appropriate algorithm, however, rewrite systems can be viewed as computer programs, and several theorem provers and declarative programming languages are based on term rewriting. Example cases Logic In logic, the procedure for obtaining the conjunctive normal form (CNF) of a formula can be implemented as a ...
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Addison-Wesley
Addison-Wesley is an American publisher of textbooks and computer literature. It is an imprint of Pearson PLC, a global publishing and education company. In addition to publishing books, Addison-Wesley also distributes its technical titles through the O'Reilly Online Learning e-reference service. Addison-Wesley's majority of sales derive from the United States (55%) and Europe (22%). The Addison-Wesley Professional Imprint produces content including books, eBooks, and video for the professional IT worker including developers, programmers, managers, system administrators. Classic titles include ''The Art of Computer Programming'', ''The C++ Programming Language'', ''The Mythical Man-Month'', and ''Design Patterns''. History Lew Addison Cummings and Melbourne Wesley Cummings founded Addison-Wesley in 1942, with the first book published by Addison-Wesley being Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Francis Weston Sears' ''Mechanics''. Its first computer book was ''Prog ...
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Glob (programming)
In computer programming, glob () patterns specify sets of filenames with wildcard characters. For example, the Unix Bash shell command mv *.txt textfiles/ moves (mv) all files with names ending in .txt from the current directory to the directory textfiles. Here, * is a wildcard standing for "any string of characters except /" and *.txt is a glob pattern. The other common wildcard is the question mark (?), which stands for one character. For example, mv ?.txt shorttextfiles/ will move all files named with a single character followed by .txt from the current directory to directory shorttextfiles, while ??.txt would match all files whose name consists of 2 characters followed by .txt. In addition to matching filenames, globs are also used widely for matching arbitrary strings ( wildcard matching). In this capacity a common interface is fnmatch. Origin The glob command, short for ''global'', originates in the earliest versions of Bell Labs' Unix. The command interpreters of the ea ...
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Wildcard Character
In software, a wildcard character is a kind of placeholder represented by a single character, such as an asterisk (), which can be interpreted as a number of literal characters or an empty string. It is often used in file searches so the full name need not be typed. Telecommunication In telecommunications, a wildcard is a character that may be substituted for any of a defined subset of all possible characters. * In high-frequency (HF) radio automatic link establishment, the wildcard character may be substituted for any one of the 36 upper-case alphanumeric characters. * Whether the wildcard character represents a single character or a string of characters must be specified. Computing In computer (software) technology, a wildcard is a symbol used to replace or represent one or more characters. Algorithms for matching wildcards have been developed in a number of recursive and non-recursive varieties. File and directory patterns When specifying file names (or paths) in CP/M, ...
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Complete Star Semiring
In abstract algebra, a semiring is an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse. The term rig is also used occasionally—this originated as a joke, suggesting that rigs are ri''n''gs without ''n''egative elements, similar to using '' rng'' to mean a r''i''ng without a multiplicative ''i''dentity. Tropical semirings are an active area of research, linking algebraic varieties with piecewise linear structures. Definition A semiring is a set R equipped with two binary operations \,+\, and \,\cdot,\, called addition and multiplication, such that:Lothaire (2005) p.211Sakarovitch (2009) pp.27–28 * (R, +) is a commutative monoid with identity element 0: ** (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ** 0 + a = a = a + 0 ** a + b = b + a * (R, \,\cdot\,) is a monoid with identity element 1: ** (a \cdot b) \cdot c = a \cdot (b \cdot c) ** 1 \cdot a = a = a \cdot 1 * Multiplication left and right distributes over additio ...
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Algebraic Structure
In mathematics, an algebraic structure consists of a nonempty set ''A'' (called the underlying set, carrier set or domain), a collection of operations on ''A'' (typically binary operations such as addition and multiplication), and a finite set of identities, known as axioms, that these operations must satisfy. An algebraic structure may be based on other algebraic structures with operations and axioms involving several structures. For instance, a vector space involves a second structure called a field, and an operation called ''scalar multiplication'' between elements of the field (called ''scalars''), and elements of the vector space (called '' vectors''). Abstract algebra is the name that is commonly given to the study of algebraic structures. The general theory of algebraic structures has been formalized in universal algebra. Category theory is another formalization that includes also other mathematical structures and functions between structures of the same type (homomor ...
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Monoid
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is a set equipped with an associative binary operation and an identity element. For example, the nonnegative integers with addition form a monoid, the identity element being 0. Monoids are semigroups with identity. Such algebraic structures occur in several branches of mathematics. The functions from a set into itself form a monoid with respect to function composition. More generally, in category theory, the morphisms of an object to itself form a monoid, and, conversely, a monoid may be viewed as a category with a single object. In computer science and computer programming, the set of strings built from a given set of characters is a free monoid. Transition monoids and syntactic monoids are used in describing finite-state machines. Trace monoids and history monoids provide a foundation for process calculi and concurrent computing. In theoretical computer science, the study of monoids is fundamental for au ...
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Noncommutative
In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result. It is a fundamental property of many binary operations, and many mathematical proofs depend on it. Most familiar as the name of the property that says something like or , the property can also be used in more advanced settings. The name is needed because there are operations, such as division and subtraction, that do not have it (for example, ); such operations are ''not'' commutative, and so are referred to as ''noncommutative operations''. The idea that simple operations, such as the multiplication and addition of numbers, are commutative was for many years implicitly assumed. Thus, this property was not named until the 19th century, when mathematics started to become formalized. A similar property exists for binary relations; a binary relation is said to be symmetric if the relation applies regardless of the order of its operands; for example, equality is ...
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Associative
In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a valid rule of replacement for expressions in logical proofs. Within an expression containing two or more occurrences in a row of the same associative operator, the order in which the operations are performed does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. That is (after rewriting the expression with parentheses and in infix notation if necessary), rearranging the parentheses in such an expression will not change its value. Consider the following equations: \begin (2 + 3) + 4 &= 2 + (3 + 4) = 9 \,\\ 2 \times (3 \times 4) &= (2 \times 3) \times 4 = 24 . \end Even though the parentheses were rearranged on each line, the values of the expressions were not altered. Since this holds true when performing addition and multiplication on any rea ...
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Abstract Family Of Languages
In computer science, in particular in the field of formal language theory, an abstract family of languages is an abstract mathematical notion generalizing characteristics common to the regular languages, the context-free languages and the recursively enumerable languages, and other families of formal languages studied in the scientific literature. Formal definitions A ''formal language'' is a set for which there exists a finite set of abstract symbols such that L \subseteq\Sigma^*, where * is the Kleene star operation. A ''family of languages'' is an ordered pair (\Sigma,\Lambda), where # is an infinite set of symbols; # is a set of formal languages; # For each in there exists a finite subset \Sigma_1 \subset \Sigma such that L \subseteq \Sigma_1^*; and # for some in . A ''trio'' is a family of languages closed under e-free homomorphism, inverse homomorphism, and intersection with regular language. A ''full trio,'' also called a ''cone,'' is a trio closed under arbitrar ...
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Unary Operator
In mathematics, an unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input. This is in contrast to binary operations, which use two operands. An example is any function , where is a set. The function is a unary operation on . Common notations are prefix notation (e.g. ¬, −), postfix notation (e.g. factorial ), functional notation (e.g. or ), and superscripts (e.g. transpose ). Other notations exist as well, for example, in the case of the square root, a horizontal bar extending the square root sign over the argument can indicate the extent of the argument. Examples Unary negative and positive As unary operations have only one operand they are evaluated before other operations containing them. Here is an example using negation: :3 − −2 Here, the first '−' represents the binary subtraction operation, while the second '−' represents the unary negation of the 2 (or '−2' could be taken to mean the integer −2). Therefore, the expressi ...
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