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International Criminal Court Investigations
The International Criminal Court has The Court's Pre-Trial Chambers As of September 2010, the Office of the Prosecutor had received 8,874 communications about alleged crimes. After initial review, 4,002 of these communications were dismissed as "manifestly outside the jurisdiction of the Court".International Criminal Court, September 2010''Communications, Referrals and Preliminary Examinations'' Retrieved 24 December 2010 Overview Opening investigation The Prosecutor may open an investigation under three circumstances:International Criminal Court Retrieved 21 July 2007. * when a situation is referred to by a state party; * when a situation is referred by the United Nations Security Council, acting to address a threat to international peace and security; or * when authorised by the Pre-Trial Chamber to open an investigation on the basis of information received from other sources, such as individuals or non-governmental organisations. Of the nine cases that the Prosecutor ...
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Ituri Province
Ituri is one of the 21 new provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo created in the 2015 repartitioning. Ituri, Bas-Uele, Haut-Uele, and Tshopo provinces are the result of the dismemberment of the former Orientale province. Ituri was formed from the Ituri district whose town of Bunia was elevated to capital city of the new province. Geography The Ituri Rainforest is in this area. It is located northeast of the Ituri River and on the western side of Lake Albert. It has borders with Uganda and South Sudan. Territory’s Its five administrative territories are: * Aru (6,740 km2) * Djugu (8,184 km2) * Irumu (8,730 km2) * Mahagi (5,221 km2) * Mambasa (36,783 km2) Geography Ituri is a region of high plateau (2000–5000 meters) that has a large tropical forest but also the landscape of savannah. The province has rare fauna, including the okapi, the national animal of the Congo. As for flora, an important species is Mangongo, whose leaves ...
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Front For Patriotic Resistance Of Ituri
The Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri (french: Force de résistance patriotique d’Ituri; FRPI) is a Bunia-based armed militia and political party primarily active in the south of the Ituri Province of northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly the Orientale Province). History Origin The FRPI was established in November 2002 from the Ngiti ethnolinguistic group, a subgroup of Lendu, as an ally to the Lendu-dominated Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI). The Ngiti, organized under traditional leaders, thus formed a counterweight to the Rwanda-backed and Hema-dominated Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) in the Ituri conflict. The FRPI was supported by the Uganda-backed Forces for Renewal faction of the Rally for Congolese Democracy. In 2002–2003, the FRPI received support from both the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF) in fighting against the UPC. Both the DRC and Uganda had also a ...
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Ngiti
The Ngiti , or South Lendu, is an ethnolinguistic group located in the Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ngiti speakers call their language ''Ndruna''. In 1991, the Ngiti numbered 100,000 located in the Irumu territory south of Bunia. During the Ituri conflict The Ituri conflict (french: Guerre d'Ituri) is an ongoing conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). While the two groups ha ..., the Front for Patriotic Resistance in Ituri was formed as a Ngiti militia group and political party. Phonology Unusual numeral system Ngiti is reported to have a base-32 number system with base-4 cycles. The following is a list of some Ngiti numerals. Notes and references Central Sudanic languages {{DRCongo-stub ...
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Bogoro Attack
The assault on Bogoro, which occurred on February 24, 2003, was an attack on the village of Bogoro in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) and the Front for Patriotic Resistance of Ituri (FRPI). The attackers allegedly went on an "indiscriminate killing spree",International Criminal Court (19 October 2007). Statement by Fatou Bensouda, Deputy Prosecutor, during the press conference regarding the arrest of Germain Katanga''. Retrieved on 17 July 2008. killing at least 200 civilians, imprisoning survivors in a room filled with corpses, and sexually enslaving women and girls. Two rebel leaders, Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, have been charged by the International Criminal Court with war crimes and crimes against humanity over their alleged role in planning the attack. Background Bogoro is a village in Ituri Province, in the north-east of the DRC. Between 1999 and 2003, Ituri was the scene of a violent confli ...
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Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui
Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui (born 8 October 1970)International Criminal Court (6 July 2007).  . Retrieved 7 February 2008. is a colonel in the Congolese army and a former senior commander of the National Integrationist Front (FNI) and the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI). On 6 February 2008, he was arrested by the Congolese authorities and surrendered to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to stand trial on six counts of war crimes and three counts of crimes against humanity.International Criminal Court (7 February 2008)''Third detainee for the International Criminal Court: Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui''. Retrieved 7 February 2008. The charges include murder, sexual slavery and using children under the age of fifteen to participate actively in hostilities. In December 2012, he was acquitted of war crimes at the Hague by a three-judge panel presided over by Bruno Cotte on the grounds that the prosecution had not proven beyond reasonable doubt that he was responsible for ...
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Germain Katanga
Germain Katanga (; born 28 April 1978), also known as Simba (), is a former leader of the Patriotic Resistance Force in Ituri (FRPI), an armed group in the Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).International Criminal Court (19 October 2007). Statement by Fatou Bensouda, Deputy Prosecutor, during the press conference regarding the arrest of Germain Katanga''. Retrieved on 21 October 2007. On 17 October 2007, the Congolese authorities surrendered him to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to stand trial on six counts of war crimes and three counts of crimes against humanity.International Criminal Court (18 October 2007). Second arrest: Germain Katanga transferred into the custody of the ICC''. Retrieved on 21 October 2007. The charges include murder, sexual slavery, rape, destruction of property, pillaging, willful killing, and directing crimes against civilians. On 7 March 2014, Katanga was convicted by the ICC on five counts of war crimes and cri ...
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Ituri Conflict
The Ituri conflict (french: Guerre d'Ituri) is an ongoing conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). While the two groups had fought since as early as 1972, the name 'Ituri conflict' refers to the period of intense violence between 1999 and 2003.Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Conflict NameHema – Lendu, Conflict Summary, Non-state Conflict Armed conflict continues to the present day. The conflict was largely set off by the Second Congo War, which had led to increased ethnic consciousness, a large supply of small arms, and the formation of various armed groups. More long-term factors include land disputes, natural resource extraction, and the existing ethnic tensions throughout the region. The Lendu ethnicity was largely represented by the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) while the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) claimed ...
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Right To A Fair Trial
A fair trial is a trial which is "conducted fairly, justly, and with procedural regularity by an impartial judge". Various rights associated with a fair trial are explicitly proclaimed in Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights, as well as numerous other constitutions and declarations throughout the world. There is no binding international law that defines what is not a fair trial; for example, the right to a jury trial and other important procedures vary from nation to nation. Definition in international human rights law The right to fair trial is very helpful to explore in numerous declarations which represent customary international law, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Though the UDHR enshrines some fair trial rights, such as the presumption of innocence until the accused is proven guilty, in Articles 6, 7, 8 and 11, the ke ...
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Brady Material
''Brady'' disclosure consists of exculpatory or impeaching information and evidence that is material to the guilt or innocence or to the punishment of a defendant. The term comes from the 1963 U.S. Supreme Court case '' Brady v. Maryland'', in which the Supreme Court ruled that suppression by the prosecution of evidence favorable to a defendant who has requested it violates due process. Following ''Brady'', the prosecutor must disclose evidence or information that would prove the innocence of the defendant or would enable the defense to more effectively impeach the credibility of government witnesses. Evidence that would serve to reduce the defendant's sentence must also be disclosed by the prosecution. In practice this doctrine has often proved difficult to enforce. Some states have established their own laws to try to strengthen enforcement against prosecutorial misconduct in this area. Definition of the ''Brady'' rule The ''Brady'' doctrine is a pretrial discovery rule that w ...
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Union Of Congolese Patriots
The Union of Congolese Patriots (french: Union des Patriotes congolais, or UPC) is a political and militia group in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed towards the end of the Second Congo War. It was founded by Thomas Lubanga in 2001 and was one of six such groups that sprung up in the mineral-rich Ituri region on the border with Uganda in the Ituri conflict. The UPC supported and was primarily composed of the Hema ethnic group. What began as a struggle for control over land and resources, broke out into ethnic warfare as atrocities increased and as arms from Uganda and Rwanda became available, and units of the Ugandan army became involved. By February 2003, the UPC was said to have fielded an estimated 15,000 soldiers. The UPC carried out numerous attacks upon civilians and other serious human rights abuses in pursuit of its policies. In August 2002, the UPC took control of the town of Bunia with the help of Ugandan forces, following which it received s ...
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Thomas Lubanga
Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (born 29 December 1960) is a convicted war criminal from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the first person ever convicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC). He founded and led the Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC) and was a key player in the Ituri conflict (1999–2007). Rebels under his command have been accused of massive human rights violations, including ethnic massacres, murder, torture, rape, mutilation, and forcibly conscripting child soldiers. On 17 March 2006, Lubanga became the first person arrested under a warrant issued by the ICC.BBC News (17 March 2006). DR Congo rebel faces Hague trial'. Retrieved 7 January 2009. His trial, for the war crime of "conscripting and enlisting children under the age of fifteen years and using them to participate actively in hostilities," began on 26 January 2009,Mike Corder (26 January 2009). International court begins case of Congo warlord'. The Associated Press. Retrieved 26 January 2009. ...
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