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Globality
Globality is the consciousness of the world as a single place. The concept of globality was introduced in the social sciences by British sociologist Roland Robertson. It signifies the spreading and deepening consciousness of the world-as-a-whole and could thus be considered the phenomenological aspect of globalization, which Robertson defined as "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" (Robertson 1992, p. 34). Earlier definitions of globality referred to the quality of being global or universal. With Robertson, globality acquires a specific scientific definition. Globality in business studies Pundits like Daniel Yergin now employ the concept of globality to speculate about the end-state of globalization, a hypothetical condition in which the process of globalization is complete or nearly so, barriers have fallen, and "a new global reality" is emerging. The current use of “globality” in business studies – as a descr ...
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Globalization
Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. The term ''globalization'' first appeared in the early 20th century (supplanting an earlier French term ''mondialization''), developed its current meaning some time in the second half of the 20th century, and came into popular use in the 1990s to describe the unprecedented international connectivity of the post-Cold War world. Its origins can be traced back to 18th and 19th centuries due to advances in transportation and communications technology. This increase in global interactions has caused a growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas, beliefs, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that is associated with social and cultural aspects. However, disputes and international diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalizat ...
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Globalization
Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. The term ''globalization'' first appeared in the early 20th century (supplanting an earlier French term ''mondialization''), developed its current meaning some time in the second half of the 20th century, and came into popular use in the 1990s to describe the unprecedented international connectivity of the post-Cold War world. Its origins can be traced back to 18th and 19th centuries due to advances in transportation and communications technology. This increase in global interactions has caused a growth in international trade and the exchange of ideas, beliefs, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that is associated with social and cultural aspects. However, disputes and international diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalizat ...
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Borderless Selling
Borderless selling is the process of selling services to clients outside the country of origin of services through modern methods which eliminate the actions specifically designed to hinder international trade. International trade through "borderless selling" is a new phenomenon born in the current " globalization" era. Definitions Borderless selling is defined as the process of performing sales transaction between two or more parties from different countries (an exporter and an importer) which is free from actions specifically designed to hinder international trade, such as tariff barriers, currency restrictions, and import quotas. Background International trade, which is the exchange of goods and services across international borders, has been present throughout much of history of economics, society and politics. It is assumed that offshore outsourcing gave birth to "borderless selling". The selling of services by offshore outsourcing service providers to foreign clients ...
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Global Citizenship
Global citizenship is the idea that one's identity transcends geography or political borders and that responsibilities or rights are derived from membership in a broader class: "humanity". This does not mean that such a person denounces or waives their nationality or other, more local identities, but that such identities are given "second place" to their membership in a global community. Extended, the idea leads to questions about the state of global society in the age of globalization. In general usage, the term may have much the same meaning as " world citizen" or cosmopolitan, but it also has additional, specialized meanings in differing contexts. Various organizations, such as the World Service Authority, have advocated global citizenship. Usage Education In education, the term is most often used to describe a worldview or a set of values toward which education is oriented (see, for example, the priorities of the ''Global Education First Initiative'' led by the Secretary-Ge ...
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Roland Robertson
Roland Robertson (born 1938, died 2022) was a sociologist and theorist of globalization who lectured at the University of Aberdeen in Scotland. Formerly, he was a professor of sociology at the University of Pittsburgh, and in 1988 he was the President of the Association for the Sociology of Religion. Robertson's theories have focused significantly on a more phenomenological and psycho-social approach than that of more materialist oriented theorists such as Immanuel Wallerstein or Fredric Jameson. For Robertson, the most interesting aspect of the modern (or postmodern) era is the way in which a global consciousness has developed. He lays down a progression of "phases" that capture the central aspects of different eras in global history, asserting that the fifth phase, Global Uncertainty, has been reached. Robertson's main works are ''Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture'' (1992) and the edited volume ''Global Modernities''. In 1985, he was the first sociologist to us ...
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Daniel Yergin
Daniel Howard Yergin (born February 6, 1947) is an American author, speaker, energy expert, and economic historian. Yergin is vice chairman of S&P Global. He was formerly vice chairman of IHS Markit, which merged with S&P in 2022. He founded Cambridge Energy Research Associates, which IHS Markit acquired in 2004. He has authored or co-authored several books on energy and world economics, including the Pulitzer Prize–winning '' The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power,'' (1991) '' The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World'' (2011), and ''The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations'' (2020). Yergin's articles and op-eds on energy, history, and the economy have been published in publications such as ''The Wall Street Journal'', ''The New York Times'', ''The Washington Post'', and the ''Financial Times''. All of Yergin's books have been drafted in long-hand. Currently a director on entities such as the Council on Foreign Relations ...
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Cosmopolitanism
Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all human beings are members of a single community. Its adherents are known as cosmopolitan or cosmopolite. Cosmopolitanism is both prescriptive and aspirational, believing humans can and should be " world citizens" in a "universal community". The idea encompasses different dimensions and avenues of community, such as promoting universal moral standards, establishing global political structures, or developing a platform for mutual cultural expression and tolerance. For example, Kwame Anthony Appiah articulates a cosmopolitan community where individuals from varying locations (physical, economic, etc.) enter relationships of mutual respect despite their differing beliefs (religious, political, etc.). By comparison, Immanuel Kant envisioned a cosmopolitan world where armies were abolished and humans were governed under a representative global institution. In all instances, proponents of cosmopolitanism share an emphasis that all humans should form on ...
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The World Is Flat
''The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century'' is a book by Thomas L. Friedman that analyzes globalization, primarily in the early 21st century. The title is a metaphor for viewing the world as a level playing field in terms of commerce, wherein all competitors, except for labor, have an equal opportunity. As the first edition cover illustration indicates, the title also alludes to the perceptual shift required for countries, companies, and individuals to remain competitive in a global market in which historical and geographic divisions are, according to the author, becoming increasingly irrelevant. Friedman is a strong advocate of those changes, calling himself a "free-trader" and a "compassionate flatist", and he criticizes societies that resist the changes. He emphasizes the inevitability of a rapid pace of change and the extent to which the emerging abilities of individuals and developing countries are creating many pressures on businesses and indivi ...
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Globalism
Globalism refers to various patterns of meaning beyond the merely international. It is used by political scientists, such as Joseph Nye, to describe "attempts to understand all the interconnections of the modern world—and to highlight patterns that underlie (and explain) them." While primarily associated with world-systems, it can be used to describe other global trends. The concept of globalism is also classically used to distinguish the ideologies of globalization (the subjective meanings) from the processes of globalization (the objective practices). In this sense, globalism is to globalization what nationalism is to nationality. The term is now frequently used as a pejorative by far-right movements and conspiracy theorists. False usage in this way has also been associated with antisemitism, as antisemites frequently appropriate ''globalist'' to refer to Jews. Definition Paul James defines ''globalism'' "at least in its more specific use ... as the dominant ideology and ...
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