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Front Vowel
A front vowel is a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would otherwise make it a consonant. Front vowels are sometimes also called bright vowels because they are perceived as sounding brighter than the back vowels. Near-front vowels are essentially a type of front vowel; no language is known to contrast front and near-front vowels based on backness alone. Rounded front vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-front in their articulation. This is one reason they are written to the right of unrounded front vowels in the IPA vowel chart. Partial list The front vowels that have dedicated symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet are: * close front unrounded vowel * close front compressed vowel * near-close front unrounded vowel * near-close front compressed vowel * close-mid front unround ...
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Vowel
A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in Vowel length, quantity (length). They are usually voice (phonetics), voiced and are closely involved in Prosody (linguistics), prosodic variation such as tone (linguistics), tone, intonation (linguistics), intonation and Stress (linguistics), stress. The word ''vowel'' comes from the Latin word , meaning "vocal" (i.e. relating to the voice). In English, the word ''vowel'' is commonly used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). Definition There are two complementary definitions of vowel, one Phonetics, phonetic and the other Phonology, phonological. *In the phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound, such as the English language, English "ah" or "oh" , produced with an open v ...
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Close Front Protruded Vowel
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is /y/, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is y. Across many languages, it is most commonly represented orthographically as (in German, Turkish, Estonian and Hungarian) or (in Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish and Albanian) but also as (in French and Dutch and the Kernewek Kemmyn standard of Cornish); / (in the romanization of various Asian languages); (in Cyrillic-based writing systems such as that for Chechen); or (in Cyrillic-based writing systems such as that for Tatar). Short and long occurred in pre-Modern Greek. In the Attic and Ionic dialects of Ancient Greek, front developed by fronting from back around the 6th to 7th century BC. A little later, the diphthong when not before another vowel monophthongized and merged with long . In Koine Greek, the diphthong chan ...
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History Of French
French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from Vulgar Latin) that specifically is classified under the Gallo-Romance languages. The discussion of the history of a language is typically divided into "external history", describing the ethnic, political, social, technological, and other changes that affected the languages, and "internal history", describing the phonological and grammatical changes undergone by the language itself. External social and political history Roman Gaul (''Gallia'') Before the Roman conquest of what is now France by Julius Caesar (58–52 BC), much of present France was inhabited by Celtic-speaking people referred to by the Romans as Gauls and Belgae. Southern France was also home to a number of other remnant linguistic and ethnic groups including Iberians along the eastern part of the Pyrenees and western Mediterranean coast, the remnant Ligures on the eastern Mediterranean coast and in the alpine areas, Greek colonials i ...
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Pharyngeal Consonant
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis at the entrance of the larynx, as well as from epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants, with both movements being combined. Stops and trills can be reliably produced only at the epiglottis, and fricatives can be reliably produced only in the upper pharynx. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term ''radical consonant'' may be used as a cover term, or the term '' guttural consonants'' may be used instead. In many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars, which nearly always trigger retraction. For example, in some dialects ...
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Palatal Consonant
Palatals are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex. Characteristics The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant , which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages. The nasal is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages, in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop , but the affricate . Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal stops with postalveolar affricates—as in Hungarian, Czech, Latvian, Macedonian, Slovak, Turkish and Albanian. Consonants with other primary articulations may be palatalized, that is, accompanied by the raising of the tongue surface towards the hard palate. For example, English (spelled ''sh'') has such a palatal component, a ...
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Retracted Vowel
A retracted vowel is a vowel sound in which the body or root of the tongue is pulled backward and downward into the pharynx. The most retracted cardinal vowels are , which are so far back that the epiglottis may press against the back pharyngeal wall, and . Raised or front vowels may be partially retracted, for example by an adjacent uvular consonant or by vowel harmony based on retracted tongue root. In both cases, , for example, may be retracted to . Retracted vowels and raised vowels constitute the traditional, but articulatorily inaccurate, category of back vowel A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be c ...s. References *{{Cite document, url=https://www.mcgill.ca/mcgwpl/files/mcgwpl/moisik2012.pdf, title=The Epilaryngeal Articulator: A New Conceptual Tool for Understa ...
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Raised Vowel
A raised vowel is a vowel sound in which the body of the tongue is raised upward and backward toward the dorsum (soft palate). The most raised cardinal vowels are ; also quite raised are , and . Raised vowels and retracted vowels constitute the traditional but articulatorily-inaccurate category of back vowel A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be c ...s, but they also cover most of the central vowels. References {{reflist *Scott Moisik, Ewa Czaykowska-Higgins, & John H. Esling (2012"The Epilaryngeal Articulator: A New Conceptual Tool for Understanding Lingual-Laryngeal Contrasts" Vowels ...
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Esling Vowel Chart
Esling may refer to: * Catharine H. Esling (1812–1897), American writer * Frederick Esling (1860-1955), Australian railway engineer and chess master * John Esling (born 1949), Canadian linguist * William Esling (1868–1946), Conservative and National Government party member of the House of Commons of Canada {{dab ...
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Relative Articulation
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point. Typically, the comparison is made with a default, unmarked articulation of the same phoneme in a neutral sound environment. For example, the English velar consonant is ''fronted'' before the vowel (as in ''keep'') compared to articulation of before other vowels (as in ''cool''). This fronting is called palatalization. The relative position of a sound may be described as ''advanced'' (''fronted''), ''retracted'' (''backed''), ''raised'', ''lowered'', ''centralized'', or ''mid-centralized''. The latter two terms are only used with vowels, and are marked in the International Phonetic Alphabet with diacritics over the vowel letter. The others are used with both consonants and vowels, and are marked with iconic diacritics under the letter. Another dimension of relative articulation that has IPA diacritics is the degree of ro ...
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Open-mid Front Protruded Vowel
The open-mid front rounded vowel, or low-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the sound is . The symbol œ is a lowercase ligature of the letters o and e. The sound , a small capital version of the ligature, is used for a distinct vowel sound: the open front rounded vowel. Open-mid front compressed vowel The open-mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as , which is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated IPA diacritic for compression. However, the compression of the lips can be shown by the letter as (simultaneous and labial compression) or ( modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic may also be used with a rounded vowel letter as an ''ad hoc'' symbol, but 'spread' technically means unrounded. Features Occurrence Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descrip ...
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Mid Front Protruded Vowel
The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid and open-mid , is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as or . Mid front compressed vowel The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as or . This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter as / (simultaneous / and labial compression) or / ( / modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic may also be used with a rounded vowel letters / as an ''ad hoc'' symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded. Features Occurrence Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, ...
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Mid Front Compressed Vowel
The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid and open-mid , is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as or . Mid front compressed vowel The mid front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as or . This article uses the first symbol for simplicity. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter as / (simultaneous / and labial compression) or / ( / modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic may also be used with a rounded vowel letters / as an ''ad hoc'' symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded. Features Occurrence Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, ...
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